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02-25-2014 - Agenda PacketPlanning Commission Regular Meeting City of Dublin February 25, 2014 City Council Chambers 7:00 P.M. 100 Civic Plaza 1. CALL TO ORDER & ROLL CALL 2. PLEDGE OF ALLEGIANCE TO THE FLAG 3. ADDITIONS OR REVISIONS TO THE AGENDA 4. MINUTES OF PREVIOUS MEETINGS – February 11, 2014 5. ORAL COMMUNICATION - At this time, members of the public may address the Planning Commission on any non-agendized item(s) of interest to the public. In accordance with State Law, no action or discussion may take place on any item not appearing on the Planning Commission agenda. The Planning Commission may respond briefly to statements made or questions posed, or may request Staff to report back at a future meeting concerning the matter. Any member of the public may contact the Assistant Community Development Director regarding proper procedure to place an item on a future Planning Commission agenda. 6. CONSENT CALENDAR 7. WRITTEN COMMUNICATIONS 8. PUBLIC HEARINGS 9. NEW OR UNFINISHED BUSINESS 9.1 PLPA-2013-00031 General Plan Housing Element Update - The State of California requires that the City Council adopt a comprehensive, long-term General Plan for the physical development of the City. The Housing Element is one of the requirements and must be updated and certified no later than January 31, 2015. The purpose of this meeting is to educate and inform the community on the Housing Element update process and receive feedback. 10. OTHER BUSINESS: Brief INFORMATION ONLY reports from the Planning Commission and/or Staff, including Committee Reports and Reports by the Planning Commission related to meetings attended at City Expense (AB 1234). 11. ADJOURNMENT This AGENDA is posted in accordance with Government Code Section 54954.2(a) and Government Code Section 54957.5 If requested, pursuant to Government Code Section 54953.2, this agenda shall be made available in appropriate alternative formats to persons with a disability, as required by Section 202 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. Section 12132), and the federal rules and regulations adopted in implementation thereof. To make a request for disability -related modification or accommodation, please contact the City Clerk’s Office (925) 833-6650 at least 72 hours in advance of the meeting. A complete packet of information containing Staff Reports (Agenda Statements) and exhibits related to each item is available for public review at least 72 hours prior to a Planning Commission Meeting or, in the event that i t is delivered to the Commission members less than 72 hours prior to a Planning Commission Meeting, as soon as it is so delivered. The packet is available in the Community Development Depart ment. (OVER FOR PROCEDURE SUMMARY) or Do6 i9/ d_"=a• �sz STAFF REPORT � � PLANNING COMMISSION ��LIFOR�� DATE: February 25, 2014 TO: Planning Commission SUBJECT: Update to the Housing Element of the General Plan Prepared by, Mamie R. Delgado, Senior Planner EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: The State of California requires that the City Council adopt a comprehensive, long-term General Plan for the physical development of the City. The Housing Element is one of seven mandated elements of the General Plan and must address the existing and projected housing needs for all economic segments of the community. State law requires that Housing Elements be updated and certified no later than January 31, 2015. The City of Dublin has contracted with Veronica Tam & Associates to assist Staff with the update to the City's Housing Element. The purpose of the meeting is to educate and inform the community on the Housing Element update process and solicit feedback. RECOMMENDATION: Receive Staff presentation. ( gin.- ° Submitted By Review• By Senior Planner Assistant Community Development Director COPIES TO: File ITEM NO.:9 . ' Page 1 of 2 DESCRIPTION: The State of California requires that the City Council adopt a comprehensive, long-term General Plan for the physical development of the City. The Housing Element is one of seven mandated elements of the General Plan and must address the existing and projected housing needs for all economic segments of the community. The current Housing Element is included as Attachment 1 to this Staff Report. State law requires that the Housing Element be updated and certified no later than January 31, 2015. The City of Dublin has contracted with Veronica Tam & Associates to assist Staff with the update to the City's Housing Element. The purpose of the meeting is to educate and inform the community on the Housing Element update process and solicit feedback. Staff and the City's Consultant will provide an overview of the Housing Element including the review process with the State Department of Housing and Community Development. State law requires that Housing Elements address all statutory requirements including providing adequate land for the development of housing for all income levels; removing governmental constraints to the development of housing; conserving and improving the existing housing stock; and promoting housing opportunities for all persons. The Housing Element is divided into four main sections: 1) a needs assessment; 2) constraints; 3) resources; and 4) a housing plan. A critical component of the Housing Element is the Regional Housing Needs Allocation (RHNA). The RHNA is the number of housing units assigned to the City of Dublin by the Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) that the City must plan for during the next Housing Element cycle. While it is not a construction obligation, the City must demonstrate that there is adequate land available for the development of housing to meet its RHNA obligation. The presentation will include an overview of the RHNA obligation and ways the City may be able to meet this obligation. Staff will solicit feedback from the Planning Commission and any interested members of the community. ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW: Pursuant to the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) basic data collection strictly for information gathering purposes which does not result in a serious or major disturbance to an environmental resource is Categorically Exempt under Section 15306, Class 6 (Information Collection). NOTICING REQUIREMENTS/PUBLIC OUTREACH: A public meeting notice was mailed to developers, stakeholders, service providers and interested persons who have expressed an interest in receiving notices regarding the Housing Element update. The public meeting notice was also published in the Valley Times and posted at several locations throughout the City. A copy of this Staff Report has been posted to the City's website. ATTACHMENTS: 1) 2009-2014 Housing Element 2 of 2 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 0 0 • 0 • • • City of Dublin � 2009 - 2014 19 82 • o � � Q �`�LIFOR� O O Aft ,82 1��LIFOR�1� 0 CITY COUNCIL: CITY STAFF: Mayor Tim Sbranti Joni Pattillo, City Manager Vice Mayor Kasie Hildenbrand Jeri Ram, Community Development Councilmember Don Biddle Director Councilmember Kevin Hart Mary Jo Wilson, Planning Manager Councilmember Kate Ann Scholz Marnie Waffle, Senior Planner John Lucero, Housing Specialist PLANNING COMMISSION: Gaylene Burkett,Administrative Aide Chair Doreen Wehrenberg Taryn Gavagan, Secretary Vice Chair Morgan King Veronica Tam,Veronica Tam & Commissioner Alan Brown Associates + Commissioner Bill Schaub Commissioner Eric Swalwell HOUSING COMMITTEE: Committee Chair Christine Kaehuaea Committee Vice Chair Ronald De Diemar Committee Member Kathy Avanzino Committee Member Mary Rose Parkman Committee Member Ramoncito Firmeza Committee Member Dale Garren Committee Member Rick Runnels Adopted March 2, 2010 Resolution 34- 10 RESOLUTION NO. 34-10 A RESOLUTION OF THE CITY COUNCIL OF THE CITY OF DUBLIN APPROVING A GENERAL PLAN AMENDMENT FOR THE 2009-2014 HOUSING ELEMENT UPDATE CITY-WIDE WHEREAS, the State of California requires that Cities and Counties adopt a comprehensive, long-term General Plan for the physical development of the City; and WHEREAS,-the Housing Element is one of seven mandated elements of the General Plan and must address the existing and project6d housing needs for all economic segments of the community; and WHEREAS, State law currently requires that Housing Elements be updated and certified every five years; and WHEREAS, the City of Dublin has contracted with Veronica Tam & Associates to assist Staff in preparing the Draft 2009-2014 Housing Element; and WHEREAS, the Draft 2009-2014 Housing Element includes Goals and Policies that will accomplish the following: o Ensure that a broad range of housing types are provided to meet the needs of existing and future residents; o Encourage and facilitate the development of lower and moderate income housing; o Maintain and enhance the quality of Dublin's existing neighborhoods; o Promote equal opportunity for all residents to reside in housing of their choice; o Increase energy efficiency and conservation in residential developments; and WHEREAS, the Draft 2009-2014 Housing Element also includes specific Housing Programs that will implement the Goals and Policies outlined above; and WHEREAS, the Housing Programs are grouped into the following six categories: 1. Conservation of the Existing Supply of Housing; 2. Production of Housing; 3. Provision of Adequate Housing Sites; 4. Removal of Governmental Constraints; 5. Promotion of Equal Housing Opportunity; and 6. Green Building Programs. Page 1 of 3 WHEREAS, on May 13, 2008 a Joint Study Session with the Planning Commission and Housing Committee was held to provide an overview of the Housing Element update process including the statutory requirements of what the Housing Element must address; and WHEREAS, on August 21, 2008 and September 18, 2008 Community Workshops were held to solicit input from the development community, service providers, housing advocates, residents and property owners; and WHEREAS, on April 28, 2009 a Joint Study Session with the Planning Commission and Housing Committee was held to present the Draft 2009-2014 Housing Element; and WHEREAS, on May 12, 2009 a public hearing was held before the Planning Commission on the Draft 2009-2014 Housing Element; and WHEREAS, the Planning Commission adopted Resolution 09-20 recommending that the City Council direct Staff to submit the Draft 2009-2014 Housing Element to the State Department of Housing and Community Development for review; and WHEREAS, on June 2, 2009 a public hearing was held before the City Council on the Draft 2009-2014 Housing Element; and WHEREAS, the City Council adopted Resolution 79-09 directing Staff to submit the Draft 2009-2014 Housing Element to the State Department of Housing and Community Development for review; and WHEREAS, Staff submitted the Draft 2009-2014 Housing . Element to the State Department of Housing and Community Development in June 2009 and received comments from the State in August 2009; and WHEREAS, Staff addressed the comments provided by the State and resubmitted the Draft 2009-2014 Housing Element in September 2009 and received a letter from the State in November 2009 stating the Draft 2009-2014 Housing Element was ready to be certified upon adoption by the Dublin City Council; and WHEREAS, on January 5, 2010 an informational meeting was held for property owners of land designated for residential development; and WHEREAS, on January 21, 2010 a public meeting was held before the Housing Committee on the Draft 2009-2014 Housing Element; and WHEREAS, the Housing Committee did not have any concerns and recommended that the Planning Commission recommend City Council approval of the Draft Housing Element; and WHEREAS, in accordance with the California Environmental Quality Act certain projects are required to be reviewed for environmental impacts and when applicable, environmental documents prepared; and Page 2 of 3 3 WHEREAS, in accordance with CEQA, updated Housing Elements are subject to environmental review, and on March 2, 2010, the City Council adopted Resolution 33-10 adopting a Negative Declaration for the Housing Element update; and WHEREAS, the Planning Commission held a properly noticed public hearing on the Negative Declaration on February 9, 2010 and adopted Resolution 10-04 recommending that the City Council certify the Negative Declaration; and WHEREAS, the City Council held a properly noticed public hearing on the Draft 2009- 2014 Housing Element and related Negative Declaration on March 2, 2010; and WHEREAS, a Staff Report was submitted recommending that the City Council adopt a Resolution approving a General Plan Amendment for the 2009-2014 Housing Element update; and WHEREAS, the City Council did hear and consider the Negative Declaration, all said 0 reports, recommendations and testimony herein above set forth and used its independent 0 judgment to evaluate the Draft 2009-2014 Housing Element update. NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the foregoing recitals are true and correct and made a part of this resolution. BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Dublin City Council hereby finds that the proposed amendment to the Dublin General Plan is in the public interest and that the General Plan as so amended will remain internally consistent. BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Dublin City Council does hereby approve a General Plan Amendment for the 2009-2014 Housing Element update with the 2009-2014 Housing Element attached as Exhibit A. BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that this Resolution shall take effect thirty (30) days after the date of adoption. PASSED, APPROVED AND ADOPTED this 2nd day of March 2010 by the following vote: AYES: Councilmembers Biddle, Hart, Hildenbrand, Scholz, and Mayor Sbranti NOES: None ABSENT: None ABSTAIN: None v Mayor ATTEST: City Clerk Reso No.34-10,Adopted 3-2-10, Item 6.1 Page 3 of 3 City of Dublin 2009m2014 Housing Element Adopted lie March 2, 2010 40 City of Dublin Community Development Department 100 Civic Plaza Dublin, CA 94568 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Table of Contents Introduction............................................................................................................................................1 1. Contents of the Housing Element..............................................................................................l 2. Consistency with General Plan..................................................................................................2 3. Data Sources..............................................................................................................................2 Evaluationof Accomplishments.............................................................................................................3 Goalsand Policies..................................................................................................................................5 1. Range of Housing Types...........................................................................................................5 2. Housing Opportunities for Segments of the Population............................................................6 3. Maintain and Enhance Residential Neighborhoods...................................................................6 4. Promote Equal Housing Opportunities......................................................................................7 5. Promote Energy Efficiency and Conservation..........................................................................7 HousingPrograms..................................................................................................................................8 1. Conservation of the Existing Supply of Housing..................................................................... 8 2. Production of Housing............................................................................................................. 10 3. Provision of Adequate Housing Sites......................................................................................15 4. Removal of Governmental Constraints................................................................................... 17 5. Promotion of Equal Housing Opportunity..............................................................................20 6. Green Building Programs........................................................................................................ 7. Quantified Objectives..............................................................................................................22 PublicParticipation..............................................................................................................................23 1. Service Provider Interviews....................................................................................................23 2. Housing Committee.................................................................................................................23 3. Public Hearings.......................................................................................................................24 AppendixA: Public Participation.......................................................................................................A-1 1. Interviews with Service Providers.........................................................................................A-1 2. Invitees to Housing Committee Meetings.............................................................................A-3 Appendix B: Review of Accomplishments........................................................................................B-1 Appendix C: Technical Background Report......................................................................................C-1 1. Housing Needs Assessment...................................................................................................C-1 A. Population Characteristics and Trends............................................................................C-2 B. Employment Profile........................................................................................................C-5 C. Household Characteristics..............................................................................................C-7 D. Special Needs Populations............................................................................................C-11 E. Housing Stock Characteristics......................................................................................C-17 F. Affordable Housing Inventory......................................................................................C-25 G. Estimates of Housing Needs.........................................................................................C-26 2. Housing Constraints............................................................................................................C-28 A. Market Constraints........................................................................................................C-28 B. Governmental Constraints............................................................................................C-32 C. Public Policy Constraints..............................................................................................C-55 D. Utility and Public Service Constraints..........................................................................C-56 E. Environmental Constraints............................................................................................C-57 3. Housing Resources..............................................................................................................C-59 A. Regional Housing Needs Assessment(RHNA)............................................................C-59 B. Credits against the RHNA............................................................................................C-60 C. Future Development Potential......................................................................................C-65 D. Financial Resources......................................................................................................C-73 E. Administrative Resources.............................................................................................C-74 i City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) List of Tables Table 1: Summary of Quantified Accomplishments since 1999 ............................................................4 Table 2: Quantified Housing Objectives: 2009-2014...........................................................................22 TableC-1: Population Growth........................................................................................................... C-2 TableC-2: Age Characteristics.......................................................................................................... C-3 Table C-3: Race/Ethnicity 2000......................................................................................................... C-5 TableC-4: Employment Profile......................................................................................................... C-5 Table C-5: Average Salary by Occupation, Alameda County MSA—2008...................................... C-6 Table C-6: Household Characteristics............................................................................................... C-7 Table C-7: Household Income Distribution....................................................................................... C-8 Table C-8: Households by Income Category- 2000.......................................................................... C-9 Table C-9: Special Needs Groups.................................................................................................... C-12 TableC-10: Disability Status........................................................................................................... C-14 Table C-11: Housing Stock Growth................................................................................................. C-17 Table C-12: Housing Stock Composition: 2008.............................................................................. C-18 TableC-13: Housing Tenure ........................................................................................................... C-19 Table C-14: Tenure by Household Size........................................................................................... C-19 Table C-15: Median Home Prices: 2007-2008................................................................................ C-21 Table C-16: Home Asking Prices: April 2008................................................................................. C-21 Table C-17: Apartment Rental Rates: April 2008............................................................................ C-22 Table C-18: Housing Affordability Matrix Alameda County.......................................................... C-24 Table C-19: Inventory of Assisted Rental Housing......................................................................... C-26 Table C-20: Housing Assistance Needs........................................................................................... C-27 Table C-21: Disposition of Home Loans - 2006.............................................................................. C-29 Table C-22: Active and Pending Foreclosures ................................................................................ C-31 Table C-23: Residential Development Standards............................................................................ C-36 Table C-24: Dublin Parking Requirements for Residential Uses.................................................... C-37 Table C-25: Comparison of Parking Requirements for Residential Uses........................................ C-38 Table C-26: Residential Uses by District......................................................................................... C-39 Table C-27: Street Design Criteria................................................................................................... C-46 Table C-28: Planning Division Fee Schedule.................................................................................. C-47 Table C-29: Development Impact Fees ........................................................................................... C-48 Table C-30: Regional Housing Needs Assessment (2007-2014)..................................................... C-60 Table C-31: Units Approved and Under Construction Since January 2007.................................... C-61 Table C-32: Units Approved but Not Yet Constructed.................................................................... C-63 TableC-33: Remaining R14NA ....................................................................................................... C-65 Table C-34: Average Development Densities ................................................................................. C-66 Table C-35: Remaining Sites with Residential Development Potential .......................................... C-67 Table C-36: Summary of Sites Inventory........................................................................................ C-72 Table C-38: RHNA and Sites Capacity........................................................................................... C-72 ii City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) List of Figures Figure C-1: Age Distribution, 1990-2000..........................................................................................C-3 Figure C-2: Race and Ethnicity, 1990-2000.......................................................................................C-4 Figure C-3: Average Household Size -2000......................................................................................C-8 Figure C-4: Median Household Income-2000..................................................................................C-9 Figure C-5: Overpayment by Household Income.............................................................................C-11 Figure C-6: Year Structure Built......................................................................................................C-18 Figure C-7: Remaining Sites with Residential Development Potential............................................C-69 iii City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) This page is intentionally blank. iv Alft City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Introduction This document constitutes the fourth revision to the City of Dublin Housing Element, pursuant to State law. This Housing Element covers a planning period from July 1, 2009 through June 30, 2014. The previous Housing Element was adopted by the Dublin City Council on July 11, 2003 and originally covered the planning period from July 1, 2001 through June 30, 2006. This planning period was extended by State legislation to June 30, 2009. 1. Contents of the Housing Element The Housing Element of the General Plan is a comprehensive statement by the City of Dublin of its current and future housing needs and proposed actions to facilitate the provision of housing to meet those needs at all income levels. The policies contained in this Element are an expression of the statewide housing goal of "attaining decent housing and a suitable living environment for every California family," as well as a reflection of the unique concerns of the community. The purpose of the Housing Element is to establish specific goals,policies, and objectives relative to the provision of housing, and to adopt an action plan toward this end. In addition, the Element identifies and analyzes housing needs, and resources and constraints to meeting those needs. In accordance with state law, the Housing Element is to be consistent and compatible with other General Plan elements. Additionally, Housing Elements are to provide clear policy and direction for making decisions pertaining to zoning, subdivision approval, housing allocations, and capital improvements. State law(Government Code Sections 65580 through 65589)mandates the contents of the Housing Element. By law,the Housing Element must contain: • An assessment of housing needs and an inventory of resources and constraints relevant to meeting those needs; • A statement of the community's goals, quantified objectives, and policies relevant to the 11 Z maintenance, improvement, and development of housing; and • A program that sets forth a schedule of actions that the local government is undertaking or intends to undertake to implement the policies and achieve the goals and objectives of the Housing Element. Although,by nature of the State mandate,the Housing Element has a strong focus on the affordability and availability of housing for low and moderate income households, the Element must also address the housing needs and related policy issues for the entire community and be consistent with the adopted policies of the General Plan. For these reasons, the updated Housing Element strives to balance the desire of residents to maintain the character of existing residential neighborhoods, manage traffic and congestion, and minimize visual and other impacts of new development, while addressing the needs of low and moderate income households and special needs groups (such as seniors and persons with disabilities). This balance will require the City to examine strategies to accommodate higher density housing, mixed-use projects in commercial zones, infill developments, and second units without sacrificing other legitimate community goals. 1 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) 2. Consistency with General Plan The Dublin General Plan consists of the following elements: 1) Land Use; 2) Parks and Open Space; 3) Schools, Public Lands, and Utilities; 4) Circulation and Scenic Highways; 5) Housing; 6) Conservation; 7) Seismic Safety and Safety; 8) Noise; and 9) Community Design and Sustainability. The Housing Element complements other General Plan elements and is consistent with the policies and proposals set forth by the General Plan. For example, residential densities established in the Land Use Element are incorporated within the Housing Element and form the basis for establishing the residential capacity within the City. Environmental constraints identified in the Seismic Safety and Safety Element are recognized in the Housing Element. 3. Data Sources In preparing the Housing Element, various sources of information are consulted. The 2000 Census provides the basis for population and household characteristics. Although dated, no better source of information on demographics is widely accepted. In addition, the 2000 Census must be used in the Housing Element to ensure consistency with other Regional, State, and Federal housing plans. However, several sources are used to provide reliable updates of the 2000 Census including the following: • Population and housing estimates by the State Department of Finance; • Labor market statistics by the State Employment Development Department; • Housing market information (including www.realtor.com, www.dgnews.com, www.rents.com); • Special studies and reports on housing issues and market conditions, e.g. Continuum of Care Strategy for the Homeless and Ten-Year Plan to End Homelessness; and • Lending patterns for home purchase and home improvement loans from the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act(HMDA)data. 2 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Evaluation of Accomplishments In order to craft an effective strategy to address the housing needs of the community, the City must evaluate the effectiveness and appropriateness of existing housing programs and actions. Government Code Section 65588(a) requires each jurisdiction to review its housing element as frequently as appropriate to evaluate: • The appropriateness of the housing goals, objectives, and policies in contributing to the attainment of the state housing goal; • The effectiveness of the housing element in attainment of the community's housing goals and objectives; and • The progress of the city, county or city and county in implementation of the housing element. Table 1 summarizes the City's quantified accomplishments under the 2001-2009 Housing Element. A program-level review is included as Appendix B. Overall, the City has been effective in implementing the goals and objectives in the previous Housing Element. Through planned development, and master and specific planning processes, the City was able to achieve a significant portion of its Regional Housing Needs Allocation (RHNA) for the planning period, although below the construction objectives identified in the Housing Element. Furthermore, the Inclusionary Housing and Commercial Linkage Fee programs were instrumental in the creation of affordable housing in Dublin. In addition, the City provided assistance to 25 households to rehabilitate their homes. The City also launched a homebuyer assistance program in 2007. Since inception of the program, 18 households have been assisted. The City also adopted the Universal Design Ordinance, mandating the provision of accessibility in new construction. The City is in the process of adopting a Green Building Ordinance to enhance energy conservation in new buildings. 3 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) Table 1: Summary of Quantified Accomplishments since 1999 Housing Assistance Type Housing Element Goals RHNA Accomplishments Housing Units to be Constructed Very Low Income(0-50%AMI) 796 1,582 311 Low Income(51-80%AMI) 531 238 Moderate Income(81-120%AMI) 1,784 1,441 380 Upper Income(>120%AMI) 7,663 1 2,668 1 6,450 Total 11,029 5,436 7,379 Housing Rehabilitation Very Low Income(0-50%AMI) 5 --- 19 Low Income(51-80%AMI) 5 ___ 6 Total 10 --- 25 Conserve Existing Rentals 57 Source:City of Dublin,2008. Notes: *New construction units based on building permits finaled. **The City of Dublin adopted a Condominium Conversion Ordinance in 2005 which contributed to the preservation of existing rentals. The Ordinance limits the number of conversions annually to 7% of the multi-family rental housing stock. While it is difficult to enumerate the actual number of existing rentals which were conserved during the planning period, the City estimates that the adoption of the Condominium Conversion Ordinance in 2005 preserved hundreds of rental units speculated for conversion to market rate. 4 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Goals and Policies This section of the Housing Element contains the goals and policies the City of Dublin intends to implement to meet its quantified objectives and address a number of important housing-related issues. The following major issue areas are addressed by the goals and policies of this Element: • Ensure that a broad range of housing types are provided to meet the needs of the existing and future residents; • Encourage and facilitate the development of lower and moderate income housing; • Maintain and enhance the quality of residential neighborhoods in Dublin; • Promote equal opportunity for all residents to reside in housing of their choice; and • Increase energy efficiency and conservation in residential developments. 1. Range of Housing Types Continuing to provide a balanced inventory of housing in terms of types (e.g., single-family, duplexes, apartments, condominiums, and mixed-use), cost, and style will allow the City to fulfill a variety of housing needs. In addition, providing regulatory and financial assistance as available will be essential to support the production of affordable housing. GOAL A: Expand housing choice and multi-modal transportation opportunities for existing and future Dublin residents. Policy A.1: Ensure the provision of a variety of housing types to fulfill regional housing needs. Policy A.2: Facilitate development of affordable housing through use of financial and/or regulatory incentives,where appropriate and subject to funding availability. Policy A.3: Maintain streamlined procedures for processing new residential development applications. Policy AA: Encourage the development of residential units intended for the special groups, including seniors, large households,persons with disabilities, and the homeless. Policy A.S: Promote affordable housing opportunities within Mixed-Use areas adjacent to public transportation and within walking or cycling distance to places of employment, commerce,recreation and near services. Policy A.6: Support existing emergency shelter programs in the Tri-Valley area. Policy A.7: Encourage greater access to housing for persons with disabilities. 5 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) 2. Housing Opportunities for Segments of the Population New construction is a major source of housing for prospective homeowners and renters but generally requires public sector support for the creation of units affordable to lower income households, especially extremely low income households. A key element in satisfying the housing needs of all segments of the community is the provision of adequate sites for housing of all types, sizes, and prices. The City's General Plan and Zoning Ordinance determine where housing may locate, thereby affecting the supply of land available for residential development. The following goals and policies support the expansion of housing opportunities in Dublin. GOAL B: Expand housing opportunities for all segments of Dublin's population. Policy B.1: Encourage development of affordable housing by non-profit organizations primarily engaged in housing construction or management. Policy B.2: Provide ongoing support to affordable housing developers. Policy B.3: Negotiate with developers to ensure the provision of housing that is affordable to extremely low income households. Policy B.4: Continue to allow second dwelling units on single-family parcels as a means of expanding rental housing opportunities. Policy B.5: Continue to support the development of affordable homeownership housing for first- time homebuyers. Policy B.6: Continue to pursue redevelopment of the Arroyo Vista site with a combination of affordable and market rate, rental and ownership units. 3. Maintain and Enhance Residential Neighborhoods In general, housing over 30 years old may be in need of major rehabilitation, such as a new roof, repair of termite damage, foundation work, and plumbing, etc. With approximately 27 percent of Dublin's housing stock built prior to 1980, preventive maintenance is essential to avoid housing deterioration. Some households, particularly those that have owned their homes for many years and have relatively low house payments, may be able to afford repairs or monthly payments for rehabilitation loans; however, others, especially lower income homeowners, may have difficulty maintaining their homes. Assisting these households will help preserve and improve the City's existing housing stock. GOAL C: Use public and private resources to maintain and enhance existing residential neighborhood characteristics. Policy C.1: Continue to provide assistance for the rehabilitation of substandard and deteriorating units. Policy C.2: Encourage the preservation, rehabilitation or, if necessary, replacement of single- family units in order to maintain and enhance the established characteristics of City neighborhoods. 6 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) 4. Promote Equal Housing Opportunities The City seeks to expand the range of housing opportunities in Dublin, including housing for seniors on fixed incomes, lower and moderate income residents, persons with disabilities, large families, female-headed households with children, and the homeless. In order to make adequate provision for the housing needs of all segments of the community, the City must also ensure equal and fair housing opportunities are available to all residents. GOAL D: Provide housing opportunities for all Dublin residents, regardless of race, color, ancestry, national origin, religion, age, gender, marital status, familial status, disability,source of income, sexual orientation,or any other arbitrary factor. Policy D.1: Support services and programs that fight housing discrimination; direct persons towards agencies that provide assistance to victims of discrimination. 0 Policy D.2: Promote housing along with supportive services, including child care, to meet the 0 special housing needs of seniors, persons with disabilities, single-parents and the 0 homeless. ew Policy D.3: Encourage the provision of housing to meet the needs of families of all sizes. 5. Promote Energy Efficiency and Conservation Energy conservation can be achieved through environmentally sensitive site planning techniques and implementing building codes that require use of construction materials that maximize energy efficiency. Conserving energy has the dual benefit of reducing housing costs and improving 40 environmental quality. 0 GOAL E: Promote energy efficiency and conservation throughout Dublin. Policy E.1: Promote the use of Green Building techniques in residential development. Policy E.2: Ensure all new residential development complies with energy efficiency performance standards of the California Building Standards Code. 0 Policy E.3: Continue to require the recycling of construction waste. Policy EA: Utilize site planning techniques to allow passive energy efficiencies through solar access, landscaping, and building orientation. 0 Policy E.5: Seek opportunities to educate the public about energy conservation. 0 is 40 7 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) Housing Programs The goals and policies outlined in the prior section address Dublin's identified housing needs, and are implemented through a series of housing programs offered primarily through the Planning and Housing Divisions of the City's Community Development Department. Dublin residents may also be eligible for assistance under programs administered by the County of Alameda. Housing programs define the specific actions the City will undertake to achieve the stated goals and policies. The City's housing programs for addressing community housing needs are described according to the following issue areas: • Housing Conservation • Production of Housing • Provision of Adequate Housing Sites • Removal of Governmental Constraints • Promotion of Equal Housing Opportunity • Green Building Programs al The housing programs presented on the following pages include existing programs as well as various revised and new programs that have been added to address the City's unmet housing needs and to respond to new State laws. 1. Conservation of the Existing Supply of Housing Conserving and improving the housing stock is an important goal for the City of Dublin. Approximately 27 percent of housing units in Dublin were constructed prior to 1980 and are therefore likely to have rehabilitation needs, including new plumbing, roof repairs, foundation work and other repairs. The City supports neighborhood preservation and improvement through housing rehabilitation programs and code enforcement. Other housing conservation needs of the City include existing multi-family rental apartments at-risk of converting to condominiums. Program 1: Housing Rehabilitation Assistance Alameda County administers the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) funds on behalf of the City. Using CDBG funds, the Alameda County Community Development Agency administers the Minor and Major Home Improvement Programs for the City. Low-interest loans up to $1,500 are available to lower income households through the Minor Home Improvement Program. The Major Home Improvement Program makes available loans up to $60,000 at a three-percent annual interest rate for qualified lower income households. Since 2003, CDBG funds have facilitated 22 minor home repairs and 3 paint grants in Dublin. Financing: CDBG Implementation Res onsibilit Alameda County Community Development Agency • Continue to support the Alameda County Community Development Timeframe and Agency to implement the Minor and Major Home Improvement Objectives: Programs. • Facilitate 25 minor home repairs, 10 paint grants, 10 major home improvements during the planning period. Relevant Policies: Policy C.1; Policy C.2 8 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Program 2: Housing Choice Voucher Rental Assistance The Housing Choice Voucher Program extends rental subsidies to extremely low and very low income households, including families, seniors, and the disabled. The program offers a voucher that pays the difference between the current fair market rent(FMR) as established by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and what a tenant can afford to pay (i.e. 30 percent of household income). The Housing Authority of the County of Alameda administers the program in Dublin. Given the continued need for rental assistance, the City supports and encourages the provision of additional subsidies through the Housing Choice Voucher Program. Financing: HUD Section 8 Implementation Housing Authority of the County of Alameda Responsibility: • Continue to support the assistance of 150 very low and extremely low Timeframe and income households each year throughout the planning period. Objectives: • Continue to refer interested households and homeowners to the Housing Aut ority of the County of Alameda. .. Relevant Policies: Policy A.l; Policy D.2; Policy D.3 Program 3: Code Enforcement The Planning and Building Divisions of the Community Development Department carry out code enforcement and inspection activities as a means to preserve and maintain the livability and quality of neighborhoods. City staff investigates violations of property maintenance standards as defined in the Municipal Code as well as other complaints. When violations are identified or cited, staff encourages property owners to seek assistance through available housing rehabilitation programs. The City will continue to enforce property maintenance standards and abate substandard structures through Code Enforcement. When code violations are unable to be resolved through voluntary compliance or through the nuisance abatement procedure, the City refers such cases to the City Attorney for prosecution. The City Attorney's office may seek injunctions, receivership and civil lawsuits to achieve compliance with City codes. Financing: General fund Implementation Community Development Department,Planning &Building Divisions Responsibility: • Continue to enforce local ordinances relating to property maintenance and substandard housing both proactively and on a complaint basis. Timeframe and Conduct approximately 1,700 residential inspections during the Objectives: • planning period. 40 • Perform annual review of City ordinances. Relevant Policies: I Policy C.1; Policy C.2 Program 4: Condominium Conversion Ordinance The City values its rental housing stock as an important means of meeting the housing needs of all income segments of the community. In 2005, the City Council passed a Condominium Conversion Ordinance to preserve the existing rental housing stock. The ordinance establishes an annual maximum number of rental apartment units that can be converted to seven percent of the total number of multi-family units in developments of 21 or more rental units. The Ordinance also establishes tenant notification and relocation assistance requirements, limits rent increases once a notice of intent 9 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) to convert has been filed, and gives tenants the right to purchase units. New condominium conversions are also subject to the City's Inclusionary Zoning Regulations. The City will continue to implement the Condominium Conversion Ordinance to preserve the existing multi-family rental housing stock in Dublin. Financing: Permit processing fees Implementation Responsibility:entati Community Development Department, Planning Division Timeframe and Monitor conversion activities annually. Objectives: Relevant Policies: Policy A.1; Policy B.5 2. Production of Housing The City of Dublin implements various programs to encourage a diversity of housing types. Part of this diversity is addressed through the Regional Housing Needs Allocation (RHNA), which encourages the construction of housing for all economic segments in the community. Housing diversity is important to ensure that all households, regardless of age, income level, and household type, have the opportunity to find housing suited to their need and lifestyle. The following programs support the provision of additional housing opportunities in Dublin. Program 5: Mixed Use Development Locating high density residential uses in compact mixed-use areas where residents have convenient access to jobs, shopping, services, recreation, and multi-modal transportation options can produce a number of community benefits. For example, traditionally non-residential areas may be suitable to provide additional capacity for higher density housing. Many residents within these areas are also less dependent upon private automobile travel, often resulting in positive environmental effects and more money for other necessary expenses. The City will continue to promote high-density residential mixed-use projects in the Downtown Intensification Area and adjacent to or in close proximity to Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) Stations provided that infrastructure can support higher densities. The City will also evaluate older non- residential properties which may be suitable for redevelopment with mixed-use residential/commercial projects. The determination of suitable mixed-use opportunities will be based on the age and condition of non-residential properties, property location with respect to transportation and services, the economic viability of continued non-residential use, and other relevant factors. The City will undertake the following actions to promote mixed-use: • Promote mixed-use opportunity sites; • Use the specific planning process to allow for, and provide regulatory incentives for, mixed- use development, such as the specific plan that was adopted for the West Dublin BART Station area; • Use the Planned Development process to allow flexible development standards such as alternatives for parking, building height, floor-area ratio, lot-coverage limits, and residential density, to promote mixed-use developments; and 10 440 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) • Provide incentives for affordable housing in mixed-use projects, including reduced parking requirements, use of Inclusionary Zoning In-Lieu Fee Fund, assistance in accessing state and federal subsidies, and density bonuses. Financing: Inclusionary Zoning In-Lieu Fee Fund; minor administrative cost to the city Implementation Community Development Department, Planning Division Responsibility: Timeframe and • Facilitate the construction of 100 high-density residential units within Objectives: mixed-use developments within the planning period. Relevant Policies: Policy A.1; Policy A.2; Policy A.5; Policy B.2;Policy B.5 Program 6: Affordable Housing Developers Recognizing that an adequate supply of affordable housing cannot be supplied by the market, the City will cooperate with developers that specialize in below market rate housing to expand the supply of units affordable to lower income households, including extremely low income households. The City has an excellent track record in facilitating the development of affordable housing. Camellia Place, Wicklow Square, and the new Arroyo Vista projects all include a range of affordable units, including units for extremely low households. The City will offer assistance in accessing local, state, and federal funding for affordable housing by: 1) applying for such funding on behalf of affordable housing developers when eligible applicants are limited to public agencies; or 2)providing technical assistance or documentation necessary to support applications for funding by affordable housing developers upon request. The City's Housing Specialist can help locate potential sources of matching funds and provide other technical assistance. Technical assistance will include, but not be limited to the provision of data or documents within the City's possession that will contain necessary information or assist in the preparation of a successful grant application. The City can also write letters of support (for projects that have received permit approvals by the City). Financing: Inclusionary Zoning In-Lieu Fee Fund; minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Community Development Department Responsibility: • Negotiate specific incentives package for each project. • Provide application/technical assistance as needed. Timing of applications or technical assistance will depend on application deadlines Timeframe and for funding sources. Objectives • Provide assistance to affordable housing developers within the planning period to facilitate the construction of 100 affordable housing units within the planning period (5 extremely low, 20 very low, 35 low, and 40 moderate income units). Relevant Policies: Policy A.1;Policy A.2; Policy A.3; Policy B.1; Policy B.2;Policy B.3 Program 7: Density Bonuses The City adopted a new Density Bonus Ordinance in March 2007 to comply with recent changes to State law (SB 1818 enacted 2005 and SB 435 enacted 2006). Only one developer has applied for and received a density bonus since adoption of the City's original Density Bonus Ordinance. Density 11 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) bonuses are infrequently used in Dublin because the City's High Density Residential land use designation allows 25 units per acre and up, without a maximum upper density limit. In addition to density increases, the Density Bonus Ordinance has other provisions that could facilitate the expansion of housing opportunities. The City will work with developers on a case-by- case basis to provide regulatory concessions and incentives to assist with the development of affordable and senior housing. In a relatively small city like Dublin, this is the most effective method of assisting developers, as each individual project can be analyzed to determine which concessions and incentives would be the most beneficial to the project's feasibility. Regulatory concessions and incentives could include, but are not limited to, reductions in the amount of required on-site parking, and modified or waived development standards. Financing: Minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Community Development Department; Planning Commission; and City Responsibility: Council Timeframe and • Facilitate the construction of 50 affordable units during the planning Objectives: eriod(10 very low, 20 low, and 20 moderate income units). Relevant Policies: Policy A.1; Policy A.2;Policy A.3;Policy B.1;Policy B.2; Policy B.3 Program 8: Inclusionary Zoning The City completed major revisions to their Inclusionary Zoning Regulations in 2002 and 2008 in order to assure that housing development continues to contribute to the attainment of the City's housing goals by increasing the production of residential units affordable by households of very low, low, and moderate incomes. Under the Regulations, all new residential development projects of 20 units or more designed and intended for permanent occupancy must construct 12.5 percent of the total number of dwelling units within the development as affordable units. Of the affordable rental units, 30 percent must be set aside for very low income households, 20 percent for low income households, and 50 percent for moderate income households; of the owner occupied affordable units, 40 percent must be set aside for low income households and 60 percent for moderate income households. Upon request, the City Council can allow the applicant to pay a fee in-lieu of constructing up to 40 percent of the affordable units that the developer would otherwise be required to construct. In certain instances, the City Council may allow a developer to construct the affordable units "off-site" and an applicant may dedicate land to the City or City-designated local non-profit housing developer in lieu of construction of some or all of the required affordable units. In-lieu fees will be placed into an Inclusionary Zoning In-Lieu Fee Fund. The Ordinance provides for five exceptions to the 12.5 percent affordability requirement (Section 8.68.040): • Payment of in-lieu fees; • Off-site projects; • Land dedication; • Credit transfers; and • Waiver of requirements. This last exception, waiver of requirements, gives the City Council flexibility to make exceptions to the Ordinance. Also, Section 8.68.070 provides incentives to make the construction of affordable units more feasible, including: • Fee Deferral processing and impact fees 12 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) • Design Modifications- - Reduced lot size Reduced setback requirements Reduced open space requirements Reduced landscaping requirements - Reduced interior or exterior amenities - Reduction in parking requirements Height restriction waivers Financing: Minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Community Development Department; Planning Commission; and City Responsibility: Council. • Facilitate the construction of 1,000 affordable housing units either through direct construction or through the Inclusionary Housing In-Lieu Timeframe and Fund within the planning period. Specific construction targets include 300 very low, 200 low, and 500 moderate income units. Objectives: . Work with the stakeholders, review and consider modification of the Inclusionary Zoning Regulations to enhance feasibility as needed within two years of the adoption of the Housing Element. Relevant Policies: Policy A.1; Policy A.2;Policy A3; Policy B.1;Policy B.2;Policy B3 Program 9: Commercial Linkage Fee The City approved a Commercial Linkage Fee on May 3, 2005. Fees are charged to non-residential developments,based on the square footage and type of commercial building space and placed into an Inclusionary Zoning In-Lieu Fee Fund. A total of$344,400 has been collected as of August 2008. The funds are to be used in accordance with Section 8.68.080 of the Zoning Ordinance, summarized as follows: • Affordable housing construction loans; • First Time Homebuyer Loan Program; • Homeownership training and foreclosure prevention services; • Rental assistance programs; • Housing Division's administrative costs; and • Alameda County Homeless Management Information System. 40 Financing: Minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Community Development Department; Planning Commission; and City Responsibility: Council • Facilitate the construction of 50 affordable housing units within the planning period(10 very low, 15 low, and 25 moderate income units). • Assist five moderate income households with first-time homebuyer Timeframe and loans. Objectives: • Provide funding towards homeownership training and foreclosure prevention services,rental assistance programs and the Alameda County Homeless Management Information System. Relevant Policies: Policy A.1;Policy A.2; Policy A3;Policy B.1;Policy B.2; Policy B3 13 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) Program 10: Housing Type and Size Variations A diverse housing stock in terms of type and size is necessary to meet the needs of all community residents. As a means of achieving housing diversity, the City will continue to require diversity of housing type and size as part of its negotiated process through specific plans, planned developments, and development agreements. Financing: Minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Community Development Department; Planning Commission; and City Responsibility: Council Timeframe and • Require that developers provide a diversity of housing type and size on Objectives: a case-by-case basis to meet the City's housing needs throughout the planning period. Relevant Policies: Policy A.1; Policy A.4; Policy A.6; Policy A.7; Policy B.1; Policy B.3; Policy B.4; Policy B.5; Policy D.2; Policy D.3 Program 11: First-Time Homebuyer Programs In 2006, the City initiated a First Time Homebuyer Loan Program(FTHLP) to assist households with financing towards the purchase of a home. The FTHLP program provides 30-year deferred loans for households earning up to 120 percent of the County median income. The FTHLP program may be used in conjunction with the Alameda County Mortgage Credit Certificates (MCC) program and assistance from the City's Inclusionary Zoning In-Lieu Fee Fund and other state or federal home ownership programs. Financing: MCC; HOME; Affordable Housing In-Lieu Fund; Inclusionary Housing In- Lieu Fund Implementation Res onsibilit : Community Development Department • Assist 75 income-qualified first time homebuyers during the planning period. Strive to provide assistance to approximately 15 above Timeframe and moderate income, 50 moderate income households and 10 low income Objectives households. • Distribute FTHLP application packets at the Civic Center, City website, and locations that provide housing services. Relevant Policies: Policy B.5; Policy B.6 Program 12: Second Dwelling Units Second dwelling units can be a source of affordable housing with limited impacts on existing neighborhoods and public infrastructure. The City will promote the development of second units on lots with existing single-family homes as well as in new construction. Financing: Minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Res pons Community Development Department; Planning Commission • Market this program through an informational brochure. The brochure Timeframe and will be available on the City web site and at the Civic Center, library, Objectives: senior center, and other public locations. • Facilitate the construction of 15 second dwelling units within the planning period. Relevant Policies: Policy B.4 14 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Program 13: Homeless Assistance The City will continue to support the Alameda County Homeless Continuum of Care Council (HCCC) and support agencies and organizations that seek to address the problem of homelessness throughout the region. Dublin provided funding to the Alameda Countywide HCCC for development of a Homeless Management Information System(HMIS). The HMIS is intended to collect and report 40 information about the homeless population and its patterns of service utilization. The City also provides Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) funds to the Tri-Valley Haven to assist a domestic violence shelter (Shiloh) and a homeless shelter (Sojourner House), both located in Livermore. Financing: CDBG; Inclusionary Zoning In-Lieu Fee Fund Implementation Community Development Department; Planning Commission; and City Responsibility: Council • Continue to fund emergency shelter programs in the Tri-Valley area to Timeframe and house residents in need of emergency shelter. Objectives: • Continue to participate in regional collaborations to address homelessness. Relevant Policies: Policy A.4; Policy A.6; Policy D.2 Program 14: Tri-Valley Affordable Housing Committee The City is an active partner with the Tri-Valley Affordable Housing Committee and assists with organization of the Affordable Housing Fair. The purpose of the Affordable Housing Fair is to educate residents, developers,non-profit organizations, and decision-makers about affordable housing sites and resources available in the region. The City will continue to seek grants and partnerships with housing providers, civic organizations, and neighboring cities to defray costs associated with this fair. The City will also continue to support local housing service providers which are coordinated by the Tri-Valley Affordable Housing Committee. Financing: Minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Community Development Department Responsibility: Timeframe and Participate in at least one affordable housing fair annually throughout Objectives: the planning period. Relevant Policies: Policy D.1; Policy D.2; Policy D.3 3. Provision of Adequate Housing Sites Meeting the housing needs of all segments of the community requires the provision of adequate sites for all types, size and prices of housing. The City's General Plan and Zoning Ordinance determine where housing may locate,thereby affecting the supply of land available for residential development. Program 15: Residential Sites Inventory The City will continue to use specific plans, planned development, and zoning to ensure that adequate sites are available (as defined by state housing element law, Government Code section 65583) to accommodate the City's Regional Housing Needs Allocation (RHNA) for all income groups. Each year, as part of the City's annual evaluation of its implementation of the General Plan, the City will 15 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) compare the remaining supply of land by zoning, specific plan, or planned development in relation to the City's remaining unmet RHNA. Should the City identify a potential shortage of sites with appropriate densities, it will use the specific plan and planned development process to provide adequate sites for future residential developments. Financing: Minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Community Development Department Responsibility: • Annually evaluate the land availability to meet the remaining RHNA. Ensure adequate capacity exists to accommodate the remaining RHNA Timeframe and of 1,730 units(879 very low, 519 low, and 332 moderate income units). Objectives: . Propose modifications to be implemented as needed as part of the City's ongoing planning efforts or at the time development proposals are submitted to the City. Relevant Policies: Policy A.1; Policy A.5; Policy B.6 Program 16: Arroyo Vista Site In the summer of 2006, the Dublin Housing Authority reviewed proposals for the reconstruction of the Arroyo Vista project. The Housing Authority selected a conceptual development plan and authorized staff to begin negotiations with a development team of Eden Housing and Citation Homes to redevelop the existing site with approximately 378 housing units, in a combination of affordable and market rate, rental and ownership units. HUD has approved the disposition of the site, and City staff and the developer are proceeding with the project. Financing: Section 8 Vouchers; Inclusionary Zoning In-Lieu Fee Fund; Grants; and private financing Implementation Res onsibilit : Community Development Department and Housing Authority • Strive to achieve 180 affordable housing units on the site, including 20 Timeframe and extremely low, 40 very low, 50 low, and 70 moderate income units. Objectives: • Ensure compliance with all applicable relocation, displacement, and replacement housing requirements. Relevant Policies: Policy A.1; Policy B.6 Program 17: Dublin Transit Center In December 2002, a Master Development Plan for the Dublin Transit Center was approved by the City Council. The Transit Center is located adjacent to the existing Dublin/Pleasanton BART Station. Up to 1,800 units of high density residential housing is allowed within the Dublin Transit Center area. The City will continue to implement the Master Development Plan as a means of expanding housing opportunities for housing needs of all segments of the community. Financing: Minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Responsibility: Community Development Department Timeframe and Facilitate the review, approval and/or construction of 900 housing units Objectives: during the planning period. Relevant Policies: Policy A.1; Policy A.3; Policy A.5 16 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) 4. Removal of Governmental Constraints Under State law, the Housing Element must address, and where legally possible, remove governmental constraints affecting the maintenance, improvement, and development of housing. The following programs are designed to mitigate government constraints on residential development and facilitate development of housing affordable to lower and moderate income households, including families, seniors, and persons with special needs. Program 18: Fee Deferment or Amortization The City will continue to offer deferment or amortization of planning/development fees for senior housing units and affordable units for lower and moderate income households to reduce the initial cost impact on an affordable housing project. The City will determine on a case-by-case basis the financial need of the project and the most appropriate type of assistance based on the City's Inclusionary Zoning Ordinance. Financing: Inclusionary Zoning In-Lieu Fee Fund Implementation Community Development Department; Planning Commission; and City Responsibility: Council • Assist 100 units through the deferment or amortization of fees, subject Timeframe and to funding availability (15 extremely low, 25 very low, 35 low, and 25 Objectives: moderate income units). Relevant Policies: Policy A.2 Program 19: Universal Design Ordinance In 2007, the City adopted a Universal Design Ordinance that requires new single-family home developers to install base universal design features in all single-family developments of 20 or more A homes. The Universal Design Ordinance is substantially the same as the Model Universal Design Local Ordinance adopted by the California Department of Housing and Community Development. Financing: Permit processing fees Implementation Community Development Department Responsibility: • Produce a brochure on universal design, resources for design Timeframe and approaches, and compliance with City requirements in 2009. Brochure Objectives: and other related information will be posted at the City website and distributed at public counters. Relevant Policies: Policy A.4; Policy A.7 Program 20: Reasonable Accommodation Circumstances may arise when it would be reasonable to accommodate requests from persons with disabilities to relax a setback requirement or another standard of the Zoning Ordinance to ensure that homes are accessible for the mobility impaired. Reasonable accommodation may also be needed to relax development standards, land use controls, and other zoning policies to facilitate the development of housing for persons with disabilities. Whether a particular modification is reasonable depends on the circumstances, and must be decided on a case-by-case basis. The City will adopt a formal ministerial process for persons with disabilities to seek relief from the strict or literal application of development standards to enable them to enjoy their dwellings like other residents in Dublin, and to grant accommodations for new development of housing for persons with disabilities. 17 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) Dublin's Zoning Ordinance defines a "family" as one or more persons occupying a dwelling and living as a single, non-profit housekeeping unit, as distinguished from a group occupying a hotel, club, fraternity or sorority house. A family includes any servants and four or fewer boarders. Based on court decisions, the definition of family should not distinguish between related and unrelated persons and should not impose limitations on the number of persons that may constitute a family. Because six or fewer disabled persons could be considered "boarders" of a licensed community care facility, the City's current definition of family can be viewed as a potential constraint on housing for persons with disabilities. The City will revise its definition to eliminate references to the number of individuals that can comprise a single housekeeping unit. Financing: Minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Community Development Department Responsibility: Timeframe and • Revise Zoning Ordinance to amend definition of "family" and to Objectives: prepare a formal reasonable accommodation procedure within one year of the adoption of the Housing Element. Relevant Policies: Policy A.4; Policy A.7 Program 21: Emergency Shelters The term "Emergency Shelter" means a housing facility maintained to provide a temporary, short- term residence for homeless individuals or families offering limited supplemental services for the homeless population year-round, provided no facility is used for more than a month at a time by any individual or family. An Emergency Shelter may be accessory to a public or civic type use. Currently, emergency shelters are conditionally permitted in the C-O, C-N, C-1, C-2, M-P, M-1, and M-2 zoning districts, and subject to the approval of the Planning Commission. The Zoning Ordinance will be amended to permit emergency shelters with a ministerial permit within the M-1 zone district pursuant to SB 2 enacted in 2007. The M-1 zone district covers approximately 180 acres on 67 parcels in Dublin. The parcels are located along transportation routes and are developed with a mix of light industrial, office, and warehousing uses. Adequate capacity exists either through redevelopment of older uses or through adaptive reuse of older structures to accommodate at least one year-round emergency shelter to accommodate the City's estimated homeless population of 39. Financing: Minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Community Development Department; Planning Commission; and City Responsibility: Council Timeframe and Revise the Zoning Ordinance within one year of the adoption of the Objectives: Housing Element to accommodate Emergency Shelters consistent with SB 2. Relevant Policies: Policy A.4; Policy A.6; Policy D.2 Program 22: Transitional Housing SB 2 adopted in 2007 mandates that local jurisdictions must address housing options for the homeless including transitional housing. California Health and Safety Code (Section 50675.2) defines "transitional housing" and "transitional housing development" as buildings configured as rental housing developments, but operated under program requirements that call for the termination of assistance and recirculation of the assisted unit to another eligible program recipient at some predetermined future point in time, which shall be no less than six months. This definition of 18 V City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) transitional housing does not encompass all transitional housing facilities regulated by the City of Dublin,particularly those that operate similar to group quarters and charge fees rather than rents. The Zoning Ordinance will be amended to clarify the permitting requirements for transitional housing facilities. For transitional housing that operates as group housing, the City's permitting requirements for community care facilities apply, consistent with the Lanterman Developmental Disabilities Services Act. For transitional housing that is regular housing, such housing will be permitted where similar housing is otherwise permitted. Financing: Minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Community Development Department; Planning Commission; and City Responsibility: Council • Revise the Zoning Ordinance to accommodate transitional housing Timeframe and consistent with SB 2 within one year of the adoption of the Housing Element. Objectives: • Facilitate the development of transitional housing for persons with disabilities and extremely low income households using in-lieu fees. Relevant Policies: Policy A.1; Policy A.4; Policy A.6;Policy A.7; Policy D.2 Program 23: Supportive Housing rw SB 2 adopted in 2007 mandates that local jurisdictions must address housing options for the homeless including supportive housing. California Health and Safety Code (Section 50675.2) defines "supportive housing" as housing with no limit on length of stay, that is occupied by a target population defined in Health & Safety Code Section 53260 (i.e. low income persons with mental disabilities, AIDS, substance abuse or chronic health conditions or persons whose disabilities originated before the person turned 18) and that is linked to ofsite or offsite services that assist the supportive housing resident in retaining the housing, improving his or her health status, and maximizing his or her ability to live and,when possible,work in the community. This definition does not encompass all forms of supportive housing, which can be accommodated in single-family homes, multi-family units, or group quarters. Currently, the Zoning Ordinance does not address supportive housing. AW To facilitate and encourage the provision of supportive housing in Dublin, the Zoning Ordinance will be amended to clarify the permitting requirements for supportive housing facilities. For supportive housing that operates as group housing, the City's permitting requirements for community care facilities apply, consistent with the Lanterman Developmental Disabilities Services Act. For supportive housing that is regular housing, such housing will be permitted where similar housing is otherwise permitted. Financing: Minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Community Development Department; Planning Commission, and City Responsibility: Council • Revise the Zoning Ordinance to accommodate supportive housing Timeframe and consistent with SB 2 within one year of the adoption of the Housing Element. Objectives: . Facilitate the development of supportive housing for persons with disabilities and extremely low income households using in-lieu fees. Relevant Policies: Policy A.1; Policy A.4; Policy A.6;Policy A.7; Policy D.2 19 A* City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) Program 24: Single Room Occupancy (SRO) Units An SRO unit is a one-room unit intended for occupancy by a single individual. It is distinct from a studio or efficiency unit, in that a studio is a one-room unit that must contain a kitchen and bathroom. Although SRO units are not required to have a kitchen or bathroom, many SROs today have one or the other. Currently, the Zoning Ordinance does not expressly address SROs. The Zoning Ordinance will be amended to facilitate and encourage the provision of SROs consistent with AB 2634 enacted in 2007. SROs will be conditionally permitted in the C-2 (General Commercial) zone. Criteria that would be used to review Conditional Use Permit(CUP) applications for SROs pertain to performance standards. Potential conditions for approval of these facilities may include hours of operation, parking, security, loading requirements, and management. Conditions would be similar to those for other similar uses in the same zones. The required findings for approval of a CUP are stated in Section 8.100.060 of the Zoning Ordinance and are the same findings currently required for approval of large community care facilities. Financing: Minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Community Development Department; Planning Commission; and City Responsibility: Council • Revise the Zoning Ordinance within one year of the adoption of the Timeframe and Housing Element to accommodate Single Room Occupancy units consistent with AB 2634. Objectives: • Encourage the inclusion of SRO/efficiency units in large-scale developments to offer a range of housing choices. Relevant Policies: Policy A.1; Policy A.4; Policy A.6; Policy A.7; Policy D.2 5. Promotion of Equal Housing Opportunity To adequately meet the housing needs of all segments of the community, the Housing Plan must include program(s) that promotes housing opportunities for all persons regardless of race, religion, sex, family status, marital status, ancestry, national origin, color, age, physical or mental disability, sexual orientation, source of income, or any other arbitrary factor. Program 25: Equal Housing Opportunity The City of Dublin contracts through Alameda County with ECHO Housing to investigate fair housing complaints and provide fair housing counseling and mediation services. The City's Housing Coordinator/Specialist is the point-of-contact for fair housing complaints, information requests, and referrals to ECHO housing. Financing: CDBG; minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Community Development Department; ECHO Housing; and Alameda Responsibility: County Community Development Agency • Provide referrals to appropriate agencies for services. • Distribute fair housing information to public locations. Timeframe and • Post information on the City website. Objectives: • Distribute information to real estate agents, rental property owners/managers, and financial institutions in Dublin. • Participate in Alameda County's Impediments to Fair Housing Study through the CDBG program. Relevant Policies: Policy D.1; Policy D.2; Policy D.3 20 .. City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) 6. Green Building Programs Green building refers to the use of environmentally preferable practices and materials in the design, location, construction, operation, and disposal of buildings. It applies to both renovation and retrofitting of existing buildings and construction of new buildings, whether residential or commercial, public or private. By continually improving how we locate, design, build, operate, and retrofit buildings, the City of Dublin can contribute to the improvement of the environment and quality of life. Advanced energy-saving technologies applied in buildings can result in enormous reductions in demand for fossil fuels and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Better design and building practices can also help address environmental challepges such as natural resource depletion; waste disposal; and air, water, and soil pollution. Green building can also help achieve gains in human health and prosperity. Program 26: Green Building Guidelines The City Council has established as a high priority to enhance residential green building requirements to create a mandatory Green Building self-certification program as part of the permitting process. Financing: Permit processing fees;minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Community Development Department,Building Division Responsibility: • Develop green building guidelines or ordinance within one year of Timeframe and certification of the Housing Element. Objectives: • Create brochures to describe program requirements and methods of compliance within six months of the adoption of the uidelines/ordinance. Relevant Policies: Policy E.1;Policy E.2; Policy E.3; Policy EA Program 27: Energy Conservation The City will promote energy conservation through the following actions: • Continue to implement the Waste Management Authority's model ordinance on recycling of construction waste. • Continue to implement state building standards (Title 24 of the California Code of Regulations)regarding energy efficiency in residential construction. • Continue to provide on-site training for City Building and Planning Staff on Green building techniques. • Continue to review proposed developments for solar access, site design techniques, and use of landscaping that can increase energy efficiency and reduce lifetime energy costs without significantly increasing housing production costs. • Provide access to information on energy conservation and financial incentives (tax credit, utility rebates, etc.)through public information to be provided at the City's public counter, on the City's web site, at public libraries and community centers. 21 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Financing: Permit processing fees; minor administrative cost to the City Implementation Community Development Department, Building Division Responsibility: Timeframe and • Implement applicable Waste Management and Building Code Objectives: regulations, provide Green Building training to City staff, and distribute energy conservation information to the public. Relevant Policies: Policy E.1;Policy E.2; Policy E.3;Policy E.4; Policy E.5 7. Quantified Objectives The City of Dublin summarizes the program objectives for the 2009-2014 Housing Element. Table 2: Quantified Housing Objectives: 2009-2014 New Home Repair/ Rental Home Purchase Income Category Construction Rehabilitation Assistance Assistance Extremely Low Income 20 0 50 0 Very Low Income 250 20 100 0 Low Income 130 25 0 10 Moderate Income 410 0 0 50 Above Moderate Income 800 0 0 15 Total 1,610 45 150 75 22 OW City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Public Participation Section 65583 (c)(6)(B) of the Government Code states that "The local government shall make diligent effort to achieve public participation of all the economic segments of the community in the development of the housing element and the program shall describe this effort." The City of Dublin undertook an extensive public participation program in the development of the 2009-2014 Housing Element. 1. Service Provider Interviews As part of this Housing Element update, the City of Dublin consulted with affordable housing developers and nonprofit service providers to obtain input on housing needs and suggestions for housing programs. Twenty agencies and developers that serve lower and moderate income households, as well as those with special housing needs were contacted. However, only four agencies responded to the telephone interviews and these are: Satellite Housing; East Bay Habitat for Humanity; ECHO Eden Council for Hope and Opportunity; and Tri-Valley Haven. Their comments are summarized below: • Affordable Housing: In general, affordable housing developers need assistance in identification of sites and funding. Easing development standards can also increase the feasibility of sites. Foreclosures are a rising issue in the Tri-Valley area. • Homeless: Supportive housing is needed to transition the homeless persons from transitional housing and emergency shelters. Specifically, demand for permanent supportive housing has increased due to the trend of increasing number of victims of domestic violence. Appendix A summarizes the agencies consulted, the services they provide, and housing needs identified. 2. Housing Committee The seven-member Dublin Housing Committee was established in 2006 and consists of members from the business community, residential community, and housing and development community. The Committee provides recommendations on new housing policies and programs, assists in revisions to the Housing Element, and provides recommendations on amendments to the Inclusionary Ordinance and other matters that may be assigned by the City Council or Planning Commission. As part of the 2009-2014 Housing Element update, a series of meetings were conducted with the Housing Committee: • May 13, 2008 — a joint workshop with the Planning Commission to review the requirements of the Housing Element and to obtain initial input on housing needs and issues • August 21, 2008—a workshop to review housing constraints and opportunities • September 18, 2008—a workshop to discuss preliminary housing strategies • April 28, 2009 — a joint workshop with the Planning Commission to review the Draft Housing Element • January 21, 2010 — a meeting to review the Revised Draft Housing Element and to recommend the Planning Commission and City Council for approval. 23 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) These workshops were open to the public. To encourage participation by the public, the City distributed flyers at community locations and public counters, posted at the City website, and sent out special invitations to housing developers, advocates, and other housing organizations and supportive/social service providers. The list of invitees is provided in Appendix A. During the Housing Committee meetings, various housing related issues were discussed, including community character, preservation of existing neighborhoods, the housing needs of special needs populations (such as lower income households, seniors, persons with disabilities, and the homeless). Key comments received include: • Neighborhood Preservation: Existing characters of single-family neighborhoods should be preserved. Higher intensity housing should be located near transportation corridors. • Housing for Persons with Disabilities: There is a shortage of housing that is accessible to persons with disabilities. Transitional and supportive housing facilities are needed in the community. • Affordable Housing Development: The current market conditions present some difficulty in meeting the requirements of the Inclusionary Zoning Ordinance. In addition, housing for special needs groups (such as emergency shelters, transitional housing, and supportive housing) should be located in areas with easy access to public transportation and social services. • Shortage of Affordable Rental Housing: Preservation of existing affordable housing should be a priority. The 2009-2014 Housing Element responds to the comments and suggestions received during the Planning Commission and Housing Committee meetings as well as community workshops. Proposed locations/zoning for emergency shelters, transitional housing, supportive housing and single-room occupancy housing were developed in consultation with the Housing Committee and the public including local service providers. Furthermore, the Housing Element emphasizes compliance with the newly adopted Universal Design Ordinance and includes a program to adopt a Reasonable Accommodation procedure. 3. Public Hearings The City conducted additional public hearings before the Planning Commission and City Council to review the Draft Housing Element: • May 12, 2009—Planning Commission • June 2, 2009—City Council • February 9, 2010—Planning Commission • March 2,2010—City Council Comments received during these meetings are summarized in Appendix A. In addition, the City conducted a Property Owner meeting on January 5, 2010 to review the Draft Housing Element sites inventory. No property owner attended this meeting. 24 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Appendix A: Public Participation 1. Interviews with Service Providers Satellite Housing, Inc. 1521 University Avenue Berkeley, CA 94703 510.647.0700 Dori Kojima,Director, interviewed on July 14, 2008 Services Provided: Provides affordable, service-enriched housing that promotes healthy and dignified living for people with limited options. Resident services include: transportation for appointments and shopping, Centers for Elders Independence, Over 60 Clinic, Multi-purpose Senior Services Program all provided through partnerships with other agencies. Population served: The population served is low income families, seniors and special needs (disabled and developmentally disabled). All are below 60 percent AMI, with the average income being 50 percent AMI and include Section 8 recipients. Housing Needs: Identification of sites is really helpful as well as funding for development. Easing development standards can be very helpful because in some cases usable sites are discarded because development standards (setbacks, easements and parking) make it difficult. Satellite Housing has not worked in Dublin because many organizations are already very active in the City. East Bay Habitat for Humanity 2619 Broadway Oakland, CA 94612 (510) 251-6304 Janice Jansen, Executive Director, 510-251-6304 x 314 Services Provided: To date Habitat Easy Bay has completed 180 single-family homes in Alameda County and Contra Costa County. The program provides first time affordable homeownership opportunities for low and very low income families with children. In addition to working on their homes through the sweat equity or self-help program, families also attend workshops on budgeting, credit repairs, conflict resolution and home maintenance, repair and landscaping. Population Served: Mixed income, but biggest group is below 60 percent. They also have some moderate income households whose units are built outside the sweat equity program and are sold through a third party with conventional mortgages. Housing Needs: Over 100,000 families in the East Bay qualify for housing through Habitat but their capacity is limited. They are currently in aggressive land acquisition mode and have the ability to build the housing but they do not have land. Habitat would like to work with Dublin and have been communicating with the City. They need: • Land that is zoned appropriately • They will match a city's density but higher density is more feasible. The preferred density is 16-18 units per acre }..; Appendix A-1 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) • Minimum lot size is about one acre • Will work with Brownfields The essentials are the political will of the City, land, usually funded by the City, and a partnership with the City to purchase the property and provide infrastructure if necessary. ECHO Eden Council for Hope and Opportunity 770 A Street Hayward, CA 94541 (510) 581-9380 Marjorie Rocha, Executive Director, interviewed on 7/10/08 Services Provided: ECHO's services reach over 7,000 clients per year with housing information and assistance. ECHO's primary service component continues to be equal housing access; however, more recent services have been directed to intervention and prevention of homelessness. Program include: fair housing services, tenant/landlord counseling, home equity conversion counseling, shared housing counseling, HUD mortgage default and delinquency program, HUD homeownership program and rental assistance. Housing Needs: Dublin receives funding for fair housing via Alameda County. They have a rental assistance program for those who fall behind or have problems renting. Market-rate housing is very expensive in Dublin. There are also foreclosure issues in Eastern Alameda County. This quarter there have been more evictions than in the past. Homes go into receivership and people are evicted. Many owner-occupied units are foreclosed. Tri-Valley Haven 3663 Pacific Avenue Livermore, CA 94550 (925)449-5845 Vicky Thompson Services Provided: Provides shelter and counseling for survivors of sexual assault, battered women and their children in the Tri-Valley area. They operate the County's only 24-hour rape crisis center and have homeless services and shelters. They have two domestic violence centers with 30 beds for 105 days, housing assistance and long-term support services, legal clinic, employment assistance, and food pantry. Population Served: Their programs serve people that cross all income groups. However, when they lost their husbands' income, the clients are usually very low income. There is a predominance of minority people being served, especially in proportion to the ethnic make-up of the Tri-Valley area. In some cases, if a victim is threatened by a partner they can be placed at a shelter that is farther away. Housing Needs: People stay for up to 105 days but the average stay is 20-25 days. Many people cannot adapt to shelter life. After that they are hopefully placed in supportive housing and then go through services to assist them live independently again. Unmet needs include subsidized housing and additional shelter space. Funding is also needed for drug and alcohol counseling and psychiatric counseling and mental health treatment locally. Appendix A-2 A^ City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) 2. Invitees to Housing Committee Meetings Affordable Housing Associates Goldfarb & Lipman LLP Alameda Country Behavioral Health Care Green Building in Alameda County Services Greenbriar Land Company Alameda County Housing & Community Habitat for Humanity Development HCEB Alameda County Surplus Property Authority Housing Consortium of the East Bay Alameda Housing Authority Housing Rights Inc. Allied Housing James Jackson Harman Management AMB Legacy Partners Kier&Wright Civil Engineers & Surveyors Ampelon Development Group,LLC Klein Financial Corporation Avalon Bay Communities Land is Development,LLC 0 Bancor Properties Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory 0 Bay Area Community Services Lennar Blake Hunt Ventures Local Initiatives Support Corporation (LISC), 40 Bonita House, Inc. Bay Area 40 Braddock&Logan Services, Inc. Low Income Investment Fund Bridge Housing Mayfield Gentry Realty Advisors, Inc. California Affordable Housing Law Project McKay& Somps California Communities Mercy Housing California Home Source Merritt Community Capital Corporation California Housing Partnership Corporation Mid-Peninsula Housing Coalition 0 Citation Homes Central Northern California Community Loan Fund Community Economics, Inc Northern California Loan Fund Congregations Organizing for Renewal (COR) NPH Contra Costa Interfaith Housing Pinn Brothers 0 Corporation for Supportive Housing Pulte Homes CRIL Rental Housing Owners Association Cypress Equities,LLC Resources for Community Development Discovery Homes Satellite Housing, Inc. DR Horton Senior Support Services Dublin Land Company Signature Properties Dublin Ranch Holdings, LLC Standard Pacific Homes EAH, Inc. Sun Valley Land Development East Bay Asian Local Development The DeSilva Group Corporation(EBALDC) The Hanover Company East Bay Association of Realtors The John Stewart Company East Bay Community Foundation Toll Brothers East Bay Habitat for Humanity Triad Partners, Inc. 0 East Bay Housing Organizations Tri-City Homeless Coalition ECHO Tri-Valley Haven 0 Eden Housing, Inc. Tri-Valley Housing Opportunity Center 0 Enea Properties,LLC Tri-Valley Interfaith Poverty Forum 0 Enterprise Community Investments, Inc. Windstar Communities Envirocom Communications Strategy Xenergy EveryOne Home No comments from the general public were received during the Housing Committee meetings. Appendix A-3 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) 3. Public Hearings A representative from the Alameda County Child Care Planning Council and a representative from Child Care Links attended the Planning Commission meeting on May 12, 2009 and spoke on the need to emphasize housing coordinated with child care services. The Dublin Housing Element contains Policy D.2 to promote housing along with supportive services for households and persons with special needs. Supportive services include child care services. No other comments were received during other public hearings. Appendix A-4 � 32 5 5 ' y ono b ? o O N ; o W a• v a� y a� . O o ai d a�i G U p y m cmn C N api v� O ' U Q> (n a� a� Q" U .d 64 a0i v O 'o y O v o O ,b vi O O a a U o rn b O q Y o ^O w o v, ai cd O 'b pp C Q '� .cC ' `n b C . 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Housing Needs Assessment The Housing Needs Assessment begins with a brief history of Dublin, which is intended to provide community context and a foundation for the analysis of demographic and housing stock characteristics as well as various constraints to the provision of housing during the 2009-2014 Housing Element Cycle. The needs assessment identifies special housing needs among certain population groups, evaluates housing conditions, and provides other important information to support the goals, policies, and programs of the Housing Element to meet the needs of current and future Dublin residents. Brief History of Dublin Dublin has long been known as the "crossroads" of the Bay Area.' The City now sits at the crossroads of two major highways: Interstate 580 and Interstate-680. However, the significance of the "crossroads" dates back almost two hundred years when Dublin was the junction of two important stage routes - one from the Bay Area to Stockton and the other from Martinez to San Jose. The Alamilla Spring, located in the Dublin area, provided a place for travelers to change horses and rw freshen up before continuing their journey. Development of the Dublin area began in approximately 1822. Jose Maria Amador had been paid in land for his years of service as a Mexican soldier and as administrator of Mission San Jose. He received a land grant of 16,517 acres in the Amador- Livermore Valley and built several adobe homes and many small buildings used as shops. In 1852 Michael Murray and Jeremiah Fallon came to the area from Ireland and purchased 1,000 acres from Jose Amador. Shortly thereafter, the area began to grow; Alameda County was created from parts of Contra Costa and Santa Clara counties in 1853. Both Murray and Fallon served on the Alameda County Board of Supervisors. Townships were established the next year and Murray's name was chosen for the Dublin area. By 1877 the first schoolhouse in the Amador-Livermore Valley, along with a church, two hotels, Green's Store, a wagon and blacksmith shop, and a shoemaker's shop were constructed in Dublin. Mail was delivered to the Dougherty Station Hotel; thus, the area became known as Dougherty's Station. Dougherty Station grew slowly during the first half of the 201h Century with the first housing tracts built in the Dublin area in 1960, transforming the formerly rural community into a suburb. Dublin grew steadily from the early 1960s as both a residential and retail center and incorporated in 1982. 1 Much of the historical information is derived from Virginia Bennett's book, "Dublin Reflections and Bits of Valley History"(1991). Copies of this book and other historical information can be found at the Dublin Library. Appendix C-1 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) A. Population Characteristics and Trends The following section describes and analyzes the various population characteristics and trends in Dublin that affect housing needs. Population Growth Dublin's population increased 29 percent between 1990 and 2000 (Table C-1) and expanded another 57 percent between 2000 and 2008 to 46,934 persons. Dublin's population growth rate has outpaced the County's growth rate since 1990 and the increase since 2000 as a percentage of population was much larger than the proportional increase observed in nearby jurisdictions such as Livermore, Pleasanton, and San Ramon. The Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) projects continued population growth in Dublin and surrounding communities through 2020. Most of the projected population growth in Alameda County is expected to occur through annexation and development of city spheres of influence and areas around unincorporated communities such as Castro Valley. Table C-1: Population Growth P Po ulation % Change Jurisdiction 1990 2000 2008 2020 1990- 2000- 2008- 2000 2008 2020 Castro Valley 48,619 57,292 N/A 62,400 18% N/A N/A Dublin 23,229 29,973 46,934 62,700 29% 57% 33% Livermore 56,741 73,345 83,604 100,900 29% 14% 21% Pleasanton 50,553 63,654 69,388 81,200 16% 9% 17% San Ramon 35,303 44,722 59,002 70,900 27% 32% 20% Alameda County 1,279,1827r 1,443,741 1,543,000 1,700,700 13% 7% 10% Source:Census, 1990&2000;California Department of Finance,2008; Association of Bay Area Governments—Projections,2007. Note:California Department of Finance data not available for the unincorporated community of Castro Valley. Age Composition A population's age characteristics are also an important factor in evaluating housing and community development needs and determining the direction of future housing development. Typically, distinct lifestyles, family types and sizes, incomes, and housing preferences accompany different age groups. As people move through each stage of life, housing needs and preferences change. For example, young householders without children usually have different housing preferences than middle-age householders with children or senior householders living alone. Dublin's population is, as measured by the median age of its residents, slightly younger than in neighboring communities and the County as a whole. In 2000, Dublin's median age was 34.3 years, while the County's median age was 34.5. The proportion of Dublin residents younger than 18 (21 percent) and over 65 (5 percent) shifted minimally since 1990 and was the lowest among its neighbors in 2000, suggesting that a relatively higher proportion of Dublin's population is of workforce age (Table C-2). Appendix C-2 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Table C-2: Age Characteristics Aw Under 18 years Over 65 years Median Age tw Jurisdiction 2000 1990 2000 1990 2000 Castro Valley 22% 24% 15% 15% 39.4 r Dublin 23% 21% 3% 5% 34.3 Livermore 27% 28% 7% 8% 35.0 Pleasanton 26% 28% 5% 8% 36.9 San Ramon 27% 26% 4% 6% 36.5 Alameda County 24% 25% 1 11% 10% 34.5 Source:Census, 1990&2000. The most apparent shift in age distribution from 1990 to 2000 was among working age residents (Figure C-1). While the proportion of 18 to 24 year olds and 25 to 44 year olds dropped (nine percentage points and two percentage points, respectively), the proportion of 45 to 64 year olds increased by five percentage points. Dublin's shift in age distribution may be the result of younger residents choosing to live in other communities or it may be an indication that home and rental prices are outpacing the affordable price range for the 18 to 44 year old demographic. Figure C-1: Age Distribution, 1990-2000 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% — 10 5% 0% under 5 5 to 17 18 to 24 25 to 44 45 to 64 65 and up ■1990 7% 15% 12% 46% 16% 3% j 2000 6% 21% 3% 44% 21% 5% Source:Census, 1990&2000. Z Appendix C-3 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Race and Ethnicity Household characteristics, income levels, and cultural backgrounds tend to vary by race and ethnicity, often affecting housing needs and preferences. Studies have suggested that different racial and ethnic groups also differ in their attitudes toward and/or tolerance for"housing problems" as defined by the federal Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), including overcrowding and housing cost burden.z According to these studies, perceptions regarding housing density and overcrowding tend to vary between racial and ethnic groups. Especially within cultures that prefer to live with extended family members, household size and overcrowding also tend to increase. In general, Hispanic and Asian households exhibit a greater propensity than the White households for living in extended families. As of 2000, approximately 62 percent of Dublin residents were White/Caucasian, 14 percent Hispanic/Latino, 10 percent Black/African-American, 10 percent Asian/Pacific Islander, and four percent were identified as belonging to two or more or other races (Figure C-2). Notable shifts in the racial and ethnic composition of the City between 1990 and 2000 include the four-percent increase in the proportion of Hispanic/Latino and Asian/Pacific Islander residents and the overall drop in the proportion of White residents. The 2000 Census allowed respondents to classify themselves as belonging to "Two or More" races for the first time. This change in methodology may explain most of the increase among residents who classified themselves as belonging to "Other"races. Figure C-2: Race and Ethnicity, 1990-2000 i 60% -- -- - -- ----. ----- ---- -------- j � x i 40% ---- --- — j � 30% ----- - --- --- - — --- - --.—_ i 20% -...—- - -- - ---- 10% --- j White/ Hispanic/ Black/African Asian/Pacific Other Caucasian Latino American Islander �■ 1990 72% 10% 11% 6% 1% 2000; 62% 14% 10% 10% 4% Source:Census, 1990&2000. 2 Studies include the following: "The Determinants of Household Overcrowding and the Role of Immigration in Southern California"by S.Y. Choi(1993);"The Changing Problem of Overcrowding"by D. Myers,William Baer,and S.Y. Choi (1996); and"Immigration Cohorts and Residential Overcrowding in Southern California"by D. Myers and S.W. Lee(1996). Appendix C-4 e, City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Dublin's population is more diverse when compared to nearby jurisdictions, but not as diverse as Alameda County overall (Table C-3). Approximately 38 percent of Dublin's population was non- white in 2000, compared to 35 percent of Castro Valley residents, 25 percent of Livermore residents, 24 percent of Pleasanton residents, 28 percent of San Ramon residents, and 60 percent of Alameda County residents. Table C-3: Race/Ethnicity 2000 White/ Hispanic/ Black/ Asian/ Jurisdiction Caucasian Latino African Pacific Other American Islander Castro Valley 65% 12% 5% 14% 4% Dublin 62% 14% 10% 10% 4% Livermore 74% 14% 1% 6% 4% Pleasanton 76% 8% 1% 12% 3% San Ramon 72% 7% 2% 15% 4% Alameda County 41% 19% 15% 21% 5% Source:Census,2000. B. Employment Profile An assessment of community needs must consider the occupational profile of City residents. Incomes associated with different jobs and the number of workers in a household determines the type and size of housing a household can afford. In some cases, the types of jobs held by residents can affect housing needs and demand(such as in communities with military installations, college campuses, and seasonal agriculture). 40 Occupation and Labor Participation The Census provides information about employment, specifically the number of City residents by occupation, who are employed by businesses either outside or within their community. As of 2000, Managerial/Professional and Sales/Office occupations were the two largest occupational categories for City residents (Table C-4). These categories accounted for 76 percent of occupations held by Dublin residents. Similarly, these occupations comprised 68 percent of jobs held by Alameda County residents. Table C-4: Employment Profile Occupations of Residents Dublin Alameda County Management/Professional 6,759 47% 293,312 42% Sales/Office 4,156 29% 182,205 26% Service 1,521 11% 82,773 12% Construction/Maintenance/Extraction/Repair 1,044 7% 51,816 8% Transportation/Production/Material Moving 988 7% 81,662 12% Farming/Forestry/Fishing 8 <1% 1,065 <1% Total 14,476 100% 692,833 100% Source:Census,2000. Appendix C-5 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) Employment growth typically leads to strong housing demand, while the reverse is true when employment contracts. The City adopted a Commercial Linkage Fee in 2005. The Commercial Linkage Fee is collected and deposited into the Inclusionary Zoning In-lieu Fee fund for the funding of affordable housing programs. A total of$344,401 had been collected through December 2007. The City will continue to implement its Commercial Linkage Fee program as a means of generating revenue to increase the supply of affordable housing in Dublin. Income by Occupation Management occupations were the highest paid occupations in the Alameda region in the first quarter of 2007, while food preparation, service-related, and sales occupations were among the lowest paid occupations (Table C-5). In 2000, a larger proportion of Dublin residents were employed in occupations with higher yearly average salaries when compared to employed residents of the County. This pattern explains the City's higher median income compared to the County(see Figure C-4 later). Table C-5: Average Salary by Occupation, Alameda County MSA- 2008 Occupations Average Salary Management $114,436 Legal $103,183 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical $87,985 Computer and Mathematical $85,935 Architecture and Engineering $83,555 Life,Physical and Social Science $74,900 Business and Financial Operations $72,468 Construction and Extraction $56,251 Arts,Design,Entertainment, Sports and Media $56,155 Education,Training and Library $55,560 Protective Services $53,417 All Occupations $52,438 Community and Social Service $52,258 Installation,Maintenance and Repair $52,098 Sales $42,312 Office and Administrative Support $39,238 Transportation and Material Moving $37,280 Production $36,206 Healthcare Support $32,708 Personal Care and Service $29,819 Buildings and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance $29,696 Farming,Fishing and Forestry $25,194 Food Preparation and Serving Related $21,478 Source:State Employment Development Department,2008. Appendix C-6 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) C. Household Characteristics The Census defines a household as all persons who occupy a housing unit. This definition includes single persons living alone, families related through marriage or blood, and unrelated individuals living together. Persons living in retirement or convalescent homes, dormitories, or other group living situations are not considered households. Information on household characteristics is important to understand the growth and changing needs of a community. Household Type According to the Census, 9,325 households lived in Dublin in 2000. Of these households, 21 percent were single-person households, and households headed by seniors (65+) comprised 8 percent (Table C-6) of the total households. Dublin's household characteristics were in many ways similar to characteristics of households living in nearby jurisdictions in 2000. One notable exception is senior- headed households, which represented a lower proportion of City households than observed throughout the County. Table C-6: Household Characteristics Single- Senior- Families Single- Large Jurisdiction Person Headed with Parent Households Households Households Children Households Castro Valley 23% 23% 35% 9% 9% Dublin 21% 8% 37% 8% 12% Livermore 19% 13% 42% 9% 10% Pleasanton 19% 13% 42% 7% 12% San Ramon 21% 9% 39% 6% 9% Alameda County 26% 17% 36% 11% 13% Source:Census,2000. Different household types generally have different housing needs. Seniors or young adults typically comprise the majority of the single-person households and tend to reside in apartment units, condominiums, or smaller single-family homes. Families often prefer single-family homes. Dublin's housing stock provides a range of unit types to meet the needs of its residents. Roughly, 59 percent of the City's housing stock is comprised of detached single-family units, while approximately 28 percent of the units consist of multi-family units such as apartments and condominiums. Household Size Household size identifies sources of population growth and household overcrowding. A city's average household size will increase over time if there is a trend towards larger families. In communities where the population is aging, the average household size may decline. Dublin's average household size in 2000 (2.65) was lower than the County average household size (2.71) and neighboring cities of Livermore (2.80) and Pleasanton (2.72), but higher than nearby Castro Valley (2.58) and San Ramon (2.63) (Figure C-3). The California Department of Finance reported that Dublin's average household size increased slightly since the 2000 Census, with an average of 2.69 Appendix C-7 City ofDublin Housing Element (2OO9-2014) persons per household uaof January |, 2008. AB8G projects that tbe2008 household size will hold relatively constant through 202O.s Figure C-3: Average Household Size ' 2000 -----'----------------------------- --- -------------'-------'--------- 2.85 ------�--------�---��--�— | | � | 2.80 2.80 ------�------------ � 2.75 _ 2.70 2.60 2.55 | Castro Valley Dublin Livermore Pleasanton San Ramon Alameda County � Source:Census,2000. Household Income Table C-7: Household Income Distribution Household income is an important consideration when evaluating housing and Household Income Dublin County community dcvc1opu/ozk needs because lnvvcc Less than$15,000 3% 12% income typically constrains o household's ability to secure adequate housing or services. While bouoiugchoices, such ua tenure (o`�uiog versus rcuboA) and location of residences, are very much income-dependent, household size and type oOoo uOeo1 the proportion of income that can he spent ouhousing. According to the 2000 Census, three percent of Dnhiiu households had inoocucu |ovvcr than Total 100% 100% $15,000 in 1999, while five percent of o"u/:c Census,2000. households earned incomes between $15,000 , Association"f Bay Area Uovenunon/n—Pnojocdonn.20O7. Appendix C-8 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) and $24,999 (Table C-7). Approximately 17 percent of City households earned incomes between to $25,000 and $49,999, while roughly 42 percent had incomes between $50,000 and $99,999. More than 33 percent of Dublin households earned $100,000 or more. Proportionally, Dublin households earned higher incomes when compared to households countywide. The Census estimated that the median household income in Dublin was $77,283 in 1999, while the median income for the County was an estimated$55,946 (Figure C-4). Figure C-4: Median Household Income- 2000 $120,000 Irw $100,000 $9 $98,000 0,000 $80,000 $77,283 $78,000 $61,500 $60,000 $40,000 $20,000 Castro Dublin Livermore Pleasanton San Ramon Alameda Valley County Source:Census,2000. The State and Federal government classify household income into several groupings based upon the relationship to the County Area Median Income (AMI), adjusted for household size. In 2000, approximately 81 percent of Dublin households earned moderate or above moderate incomes, while 19 percent of households earned lower incomes(Table C-8).4 Table C-8: Households by Income Category- 2000 Income Category(%of County AMI) Households Percent Extremely Low(30%or less) 321 4% Very Low(31 to 50%) 588 6% Low(51 to 80%) 820 9% Moderate or Above(over 80%) 7,550 81% - Total 9,279 1000/6 Source: Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy(CHAS),2000. 4 Data was obtained from the Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy(CHAS)prepared for HUD by the Census Bureau using 2000 Census data. Appendix C-9 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) Overcrowding An overcrowded housing unit is defined as a unit occupied by more than one person per room.5 Overcrowding can result when there are not enough adequately sized units within a community, when high housing costs relative to income force too many individuals to share a housing unit than it can adequately accommodate, and/or when families reside in smaller units than they need to devote income to other necessities, such as food and health care. Overcrowding also tends to accelerate deterioration of housing. Therefore, maintaining a reasonable level of occupancy and alleviating overcrowding are important City goals to enhance quality of life for residents and aesthetic quality of neighborhoods. V Whereas 12 percent of County households experienced overcrowded living conditions in 2000, overcrowding only affected five percent of Dublin households. The incidence of overcrowding was highest among renter-households with nine percent affected compared to three percent of owner- households. This pattern often suggests an inadequate supply of larger rental units. While 65 percent of occupied housing units in the City had more than three bedrooms (the minimum size considered large enough to avoid most overcrowding issues for large households), only 16 percent of these units were occupied by renters. Although a portion of overcrowding problems is likely attributable to a lack of larger housing units available for rent, the incidence of overcrowding is also influenced by another housing problem, overpayment, as families faced with paying a high proportion of income on housing costs tend to take on additional roommates share the cost burden or to reside in smaller units to save on costs. Overpayment State and federal standards for housing overpayment(cost burden) are based on an income-to-housing cost ratio of 30 percent and above. Households paying more than 30 percent of their income on housing have limited remaining income for other necessities. Above moderate income households generally are capable of paying a larger proportion of income for housing; therefore, estimates of housing overpayment generally focus on lower and moderate income households. In 2000, 35 percent of all Dublin households overpaid for housing and overpayment affected owners and renters in roughly equal proportions (33 percent versus 36 percent, respectively). However, the majority of the overpayment was concentrated among households at the lower income ranges (below $50,000). Overpayment affected a larger proportion of households earning less than $50,000 than other households, regardless of tenure. For households earning between $50,000 and $75,000, overpayment affected a larger percentage of homeowners than renters, which indicates that rental housing in Dublin was more affordable to moderate income households than the ownership housing stock(Figure C-5). s Based on the Census Bureau's definition of"room," which excludes bathrooms, porches, balconies, foyers, halls, or half-rooms. See 2000 Census Long Form,question#37. Appendix C-10 AW City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Figure C-5: Overpayment by Household Income 90% 80% 70% t 60% 50% --- 40% 30% u 20% 10% 0% <$20,000 $20,000 to $35,000 to $50,000 to >$751000 $34,999 $49,999 $74,999 ■Renter 81% 84% 75% 27% 1% d Owner 80% 65% 66% 54% 15% Source: Census,2000. rw D. Special Needs Populations Certain segments of the population may have more difficulty in finding decent, affordable housing due to their special needs. Special circumstances may be related to one's employment and income, family characteristics, disability, and household characteristics, among other factors. Consequently, some Dublin residents may experience a higher prevalence of housing overpayment, overcrowding, or other housing problems than other community members. "Special needs" groups include the following: senior households, single-parent households, large households, persons with disabilities, agricultural workers, military personnel, and homeless (Table C-9). This section provides a detailed discussion of the housing needs facing each particular group as well as programs and services available to address their housing needs. 0 Appendix C-11 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) Table C-9: Special Needs Groups Special Needs Group Dublin Alameda County # % # % Senior-Headed Households(Age 65+) 795 9% 90,904 17% Single-Parent Households 768 8% 58,192 11% Large Households 931 10% 67,052 13% Persons with Disabilities(Age 5+) 2,926 13% 248,558 19% Homeless 39 <1% 6,215 <1% Agricultural Workers 8 <1% 1,065 <1% Military Personnel 77 <1% 1,361 <1% Source: Census,2000;and Alameda Countywide Homeless Continuum of Care Council,2009. Notes: Data derived from Census 2000 reported as percent of households or population in 2000. Senior-Headed Households The population over 65 years of age is considered senior and has four main concerns: limited and often fixed income; poor health and associated high health care costs; mobility limitation and transit dependency; and high housing costs. In 2000, seniors comprised nine percent of Dublin residents and three percent of Dublin households were headed by seniors. Of the senior-headed households, the majority (77 percent) owned their homes, while the remainder(23 percent) rented. Approximately 35 percent of the senior-headed households overpaid for housing. Specifically, 23 percent of senior homeowners overpaid, while 76 percent of senior renters overpaid. Aside from overpayment problems faced by seniors due to their relatively fixed incomes, many seniors are faced with various disabilities. Roughly, 38 percent of Dublin's senior population was listed as having one or more disabilities in 2000 by the Census. Among these disabilities, the most common were physical and other disabilities that limited their ability to go outside the home. The City expedited project review and provided funding assistance to a 322-unit senior apartment project known as Pine Groves/Cedar Groves in 2006. The project is restricted to seniors aged 55 years and over and includes 292 below market rent units. The City also assisted the development of Wicklow Square, a 54-unit senior complex completed in 2005. All units at this development are affordable to seniors over 62 years of age at very low and extremely low incomes. The City provided a low-interest loan and a 99-year ground lease for $1 per year on the City-owned property for the development of Wicklow Square. A significant and recent accomplishment of the City is the adoption of the Universal Design Ordinance in 2007, which requires developers to meet certain Universal Design standards in residential developments. Single-Parent Households Single-parent households require special consideration and assistance because of their greater need for day care, health care, and other facilities. Female-headed households with children in particular tend to have lower incomes, thus limiting housing availability for this group. Approximately eight percent of Dublin households were headed by single parents in 2000; the large majority of which were headed by females (66 percent). According to the 2000 Census, eight percent Appendix C-12 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) of single-parent households in Dublin had incomes below the poverty level; more than 72 percent of these households were headed by women. While the City has no specific program targeted to assist single-parent households, the City's efforts in expanding affordable housing opportunities will help meet the needs of single-parent households. Large Households Large households (with five or more members) are identified as a group with special housing needs based on the limited availability of adequately sized, affordable housing units. Large households with lower incomes frequently occupy smaller and more affordable dwelling units to offset potential cost burden,which in turn can accelerate unit deterioration. Approximately 10 percent of Dublin households could be classified as large households in 2000. About a quarter (24 percent) of these households rented the units they occupied. Although the housing needs of large households can usually be met through larger units, availability of adequately sized and affordable rental units may be limited. For example, approximately 65 percent of occupied housing units in the City had more than three bedrooms (adequate size for larger households) in 2000; however, only a small portion of these units(16 percent)were occupied by renters. Through the City's Inclusionary Zoning and Commercial Linkage Fee programs, the City is able to provide affordable housing opportunities to lower and moderate income households. Such efforts help reduce overcrowding and overpayment among lower and moderate income households, and help reduce the number of large households formed by families or individuals sharing housing arrangements. Persons with Disabilities Disability is a physical or mental condition that substantially limits one or more major life activities. Physical disabilities can hinder access to housing units of conventional design, as well as limit the ability to earn incomes sufficient to avoid housing cost burden. The Census defines six types of disabilities: sensory, physical, mental, self-care, go-outside-home, and employment. Sensory and physical disabilities are considered "long-lasting conditions." Mental, self-care, go-outside-home, and employment disabilities are conditions lasting six months or more that makes it difficult to perform certain activities. A more detailed description of each disability is provided below: • Sensory: Refers to blindness, deafness, or severe vision or hearing impairment. • Physical: Refers to a condition that substantially limits one or more basic physical activities, such as walking, climbing stairs,reaching, lifting, or carrying. • Mental: Refers to a mental condition lasting more than six months that impairs learning, remembering, or concentrating. • Self-care: Refers to a condition that restricts ability to dress, bathe, or get around inside the home. • Go-outside-home: Refers to a condition that restricts ability to go outside the home alone to shop or visit a doctor's office. • Employment: Refers to a condition that restricts ability to work at a job or business. The Census estimates that 13 percent of Dublin residents over five years of age had a disability in 2000. The Census tallied the number of disabilities by type for residents with one or more disabilities; a person may have more than one disability. Among the disabilities tallied, eight percent were sensory disabilities, 21 percent were physical disabilities, 13 percent were mental disabilities, Appendix C-13 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) six percent were self-care disabilities, 21 percent were disabilities that limited the ability to go outside the home, and 31 percent were employment disabilities(Table C-10). Table C-10: Disability Status Disabilities Tallied Disability by Age and Type 5 to 15 16 to 64 65 years Total o Total ears years and over 5+ years)(/o) Sensory disability 9 262 115 386 8% Physical disability 29 560 387 976 21% Mental disability 146 337 128 611 13% Self-care disability 29 186 79 294 6% Go-outside-home disability' -- 795 228 1,023 21% Employment disability2 -- 1,486 -- 1,486 310//0 Overall 213 3,626 937 4,776 100% Source:Census,2000. Notes: 1. Tallied only for persons 16 years and over. 2. Tallied only for persons 16 years to 64 years. Four factors — affordability, design, location and discrimination — can limit the supply of housing available to households of persons with disabilities. The most obvious housing need for persons with disabilities is housing that is or can be adapted to their needs. Most single-family homes are inaccessible to people with mobility and sensory limitations. Housing may not be adaptable to widened doorways and hallways, access ramps, larger bathrooms, lowered countertops and other features necessary for accessibility. The cost of retrofitting a home often makes homeownership cost- prohibitive, even for individuals or families who could otherwise afford a home. Furthermore, some providers of basic homebuying services do not have offices or materials that are accessible to people with mobility, visual or hearing impairments. Services for persons with disabilities are typically provided by both public and private agencies. State and Federal legislation regulate the accessibility and adaptability of new or rehabilitated multi- family apartment complexes to ensure accommodation for individuals with limited physical mobility. In 2007, the City adopted a Universal Design Ordinance that requires new single-family home developers to install base Universal Design features in all single-family developments of 20 or more homes. The City will continue to enforce the provisions of this ordinance. Homeless The Alameda Countywide Homeless Continuum of Care Council (HCCC) relies on a "community- defined" definition of homeless; one that includes the HUD-defined chronic homeless population as a subset of the County's overall homeless population. Community-defined homelessness includes people staying in emergency shelters or transitional housing, living on the street or in a car, and people who will lose their housing within a month and have nowhere to go. Assessing a region's homeless population is difficult because of the transient nature of the population. As many as 16,000 people are estimated to be homeless during the course of a year in Alameda County, and more than 5,000 are homeless on any given night. The Alameda Countywide HCCC Appendix C-14 A: City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) updated a 2004 survey of the County's homeless population in 2009.6 The survey found 6,215 people were homeless. Nearly half of the County's homeless population at the point of the survey was in Oakland, while 20 percent were in South and East County, 13 percent in Berkeley, and 17 percent in other Mid- and North County locations. South and East County includes the cities of Dublin, Fremont, Livermore, Pleasanton, Newark, and Union City. Generally, the homeless population in Oakland and Berkeley includes more single adults and people with disabilities, while South, East, Mid-, and North County have higher proportions of homeless families with children. According to this study, Dublin has an estimated homeless population of 39 persons. Based on informal interviews with patrol personnel and arrest statistics, the Police estimates that the City has temporary transient homeless persons due to the location of Santa Rita Jail and its location at the end of the BART line. About five to six individuals have been observed near the BART Station in the morning; they ride the rails for shelter during the day. Emergency, transitional, and permanent supportive housing is available in Alameda County for 0 people who are homeless, living with HIV/AIDS, and/or mentally ill. Unlike affordable housing in general, housing that is dedicated to one of these populations typically connects with services. The service connection may range from a service coordinator, who can make referrals to services off-site, up to more intensive on-site services. The following provides an overview of Countywide housing resources available to serve the County's homeless population: • Emergency Shelters: An emergency shelter provides overnight shelter and fulfills a client's basic needs (i.e. food, clothing, and medical care) either on site or through off-site services. The permitted length of stay can vary from one day at a time to three months. Approximately 747 emergency shelter beds for single individuals and 73 emergency shelter units for families that can accommodate 485 people in families are available throughout the County. • Transitional Housing: This type of facility provides housing for up to two years. Residents of transitional housing are usually connected to supportive services designed to assist the homeless in achieving greater economic independence and a permanent, stable living situation. The countywide inventory of transitional housing includes 543 beds for single I '' individuals and 326 units for families that can accommodate 1,077 people in families. • Supportive Housing: Permanent supportive housing is service-enriched and linked with on- going supportive services (on-site or off-site)allowing formerly homeless clients to live at the facility on an indefinite basis. Support services can encompass a wide range of activities, such as case management, service coordination (assessing needs and coordinating services), health and mental health care, substance abuse treatment, employment counseling and training, and money management. Services are usually tailored to the needs of the housed individuals, and may be delivered on-site or through linkages to community-based agencies. An estimated 1,369 permanent supportive housing beds or units for single individuals plus 650 beds for individuals in Board and Care homes and 10 beds in a residential care facility are located throughout the County. The permanent supportive housing inventory for families includes 358 permanent housing units that can accommodate 1,022 people in families. 6 Alameda Countywide Homeless Continuum of Care Council, "Alameda Countywide Homeless and Special Needs Housing Plan",May 2009. Appendix C-15 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) Homelessness is a regional issue that requires the coordination among regional agencies. "EveryOne Home" is Alameda County's road map for ending homelessness. It represents an opportunity to participate in a model of long-term solutions and innovative countywide strategies. Emphasizing a coordinated, efficient regional response to a regional problem will make the best use of the county's resources while building capacity to attract funding from federal, state and philanthropic sources. EveryOne Home envisions the creation of a housing-and-services system that partners with consumers, families and advocates; provides appropriate services in a timely fashion to all in need; and ensures that individuals and families are safely, supportively and permanently housed. The City adopted EveryOne Home in August 2008. The City will continue to support the Alameda County HCCC and agencies and organizations that address the problem of homelessness throughout the region. Dublin provided funding to the Alameda Countywide HCCC for development of a Homeless Management Information System (HMIS). The HMIS is intended to collect and report information about the homeless population and its patterns of service utilization. The City also provides Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) funds to the Tri-Valley Haven to assist a domestic violence shelter(Shiloh) and a homeless shelter (Sojourner House),both located in Livermore. The City will continue to analyze and address impediments to the provision of housing for the homeless and near homeless by facilitating and encouraging the development of affordable housing and facilities for the homeless, including emergency shelters, transitional housing, single room occupancy units, and permanent supportive housing. The Zoning Ordinance will be amended to address recent changes to State law regarding these housing options (SB 2 enacted in 2007). Agricultural Workers Agricultural workers are traditionally defined as persons whose primary incomes are earned through permanent or seasonal agricultural labor. Permanent farm laborers work in the fields, processing plants, or support activities on a generally year-round basis. When workload increases during harvest periods, the labor force is supplemented by seasonal labor, often supplied by a labor contractor. For some crops, farms may employ migrant workers, defined as those whose travel distance to work prevents them from returning to their primary residence every evening. Determining the true size of the agricultural labor force is problematic. For instance, government agencies that track farm labor do not consistently define farm-workers (e.g. field laborers versus workers in processing plants), length of employment (e.g. permanent or seasonal), or place of work(e.g. the location of the business or field). Further limiting the ability to ascertain the number of agricultural workers within Dublin is the limited data available on the City due to its relatively small size. Therefore, the 2000 Census is the sole source of information that can be referenced. According to the 2000 Census, only eight Dublin residents and less than one percent of Alameda County residents were employed in farming, forestry, or fishing occupations. Dublin is an urbanized community with no undeveloped parcels zoned for agricultural use. Because a negligible portion of community residents are employed in farming, fishing, and forestry occupations and there is little potential for this occupational category to expand within Dublin, no housing programs or policies are needed to address the needs of farm-workers. Appendix C-16 ` City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Military Personnel The Camp Parks Reserve Forces Training Area is located in Dublin. Camp Parks supports some 20,000 northern California Army Reserve and California National Guard Soldiers from an estimated 250 reserve component units. Many of these units train at Camp Parks for two weeks each summer. Because most of the military personnel that use Camp Parks are reservists, few live in Dublin. Recently, the military constructed 114 homes on the base for military personnel. As of 2000, only 77 Dublin residents (0.3 percent) served in the Armed Forces full-time. Therefore, no housing programs or policies are needed to address the needs of military personnel. E. Housing Stock Characteristics The characteristics of the housing stock, including growth, type, age and condition, tenure, vacancy rates, costs, and affordability are important in determining the housing needs for the community. This section details Dublin's housing stock characteristics in an attempt to identify how well the current housing stock meets the needs of current and future residents of the City. Housing Unit Growth and Type Dublin has experienced relatively strong housing growth since 1990. The City's housing stock grew rw from 6,992 units in 1990 to an estimated 16,029 units as of January 2008, or approximately 113 percent (Table C-11). The rate of housing growth in Dublin since 1990 outpaced growth observed in nearby communities and was substantially higher than countywide growth. Table C-11: Housing Stock Growth Jurisdiction #of Units in #of Units in #of Units in %Increase %Increase 1990 2000 2008 1990-2000 2000-08 Castro Valley 19,682 22,003 N/A 12% N/A Dublin 6,992 9,872 16,029 41% 62% Livermore 21,489 26,610 29,955 24% 13% Pleasanton 19,356 23,968 25,822 24% 8% San Ramon 13,531 17,552 23,559 30% 34% Alameda County 504,109 540,183 570,619 7% 5% Source: Census 1990&2000;and California Department of Finance,2008. Note:California Department of Finance data not available for the unincorporated community of Castro Valley. Dublin maintains a diverse housing stock. In 2008, single-family homes comprised 59 percent of the housing stock, while multi-family units comprised 41 percent, and less than one percent of the housing stock consisted of mobile homes (Table C-12). Compared to the County, Dublin's housing stock has a larger proportion of multi-family structures with five or more units. Appendix C-17 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Table C-12: Housing Stock Composition: 2008 Housing Type Dublin County #of Units % of Total #of Units % of Total Single-Family Detached 8,138 51% 303,613 53% Single-Family Attached 1,304 8% 39,742 7% Multifamily 2-4 Units 462 3% 62,584 11% Multifamily 5+Units 6,097 38% 157,025 27% Mobile Homes/Other 28 <1% 7,655 1% Total Units 16,029 100% 570,619 100% Source:California Department of Finance,2008. Housing Age and Condition Housing that is 30 years or older is assumed to require some rehabilitation. Electrical capacity, kitchen features, and roofs usually need updating if no prior replacement work has occurred. Dublin's housing stock is younger than the County's overall; 27 percent of the City's housing stock was constructed prior to 1980, while 74 percent of the County's housing stock will be more than 30 years old within the planning period of this Housing Element(Figure C-6). Figure C-6: Year Structure Built 45% -- - ------ -------... . -------------------— 35% r - - --- - - ------ -- - ----- - � � I 30% --__.___----_-----_._- 25% - - -- - - 20% 15% - - --- -- -- 10% - ------- -- - - - - ---- 0% — — Pre 1939 i 1940 to 1960 to 1970 to 1980 to 1990 to 3/2000 to 1959 1969 1979 1989 3/2000 ! 1/2008 jNDublin 1% 2% 18% 6% 15% -' 20% 38% Alameda County i 18.7% 24.4% 15.9% 15.3% 11.2% 9.2% 5.3% Source:Census,2000;and California Department of Finance,2008. Therefore, approximately one in four Dublin housing units will be of sufficient age to be susceptible to deterioration, and may require maintenance or rehabilitation within the Housing Element planning period. However, the actual proportion of Dublin housing units in need of rehabilitation or replacement is likely much lower as high property values in Dublin, even for older homes, creates a market incentive for most property owners to diligently maintain their dwelling units. For these reasons, the City estimates that less than three percent of the housing stock (<447 units) is need of rehabilitation and less than one percent is in need of replacement (<149 units). Even this estimate Appendix C-18 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) may be high as substandard housing, paint, or pest control issues led to only eight code enforcement inspections of the 1,703 residential inspections conducted since 2003. The Alameda County Community Development Agency administers a Minor and Major Home Improvement Program for the City of Dublin. The Low-interest loans up to $1,500 are available to lower income households through the Minor Home Improvement Program. The Major Home Improvement Program makes available loans up to $60,000 at a three percent annual percentage rate for qualified lower income households. Since 2003, on behalf of the City, Alameda County administered Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) funds and provided 22 minor home repairs and 3 paint grants in Dublin. The City will continue to support the Alameda County Community Development Agency to implement the Minor and Major Home Improvement Program. Housing Tenure The tenure distribution of a community's housing stock Table C-13: Housing Tenure (owner-occupied versus renter-occupied) influences several aspects of the local housing market. Residential Jurisdiction %Owner- %Renter- stability is influenced by tenure, with ownership Occupied Occupied housing evidencing a much lower turnover rate than Castro Valley 70% 30% rental housing. Housing overpayment, while faced by Dublin 65% 35% many households, is far more prevalent among renters. Livermore 72% 28% Tenure preferences are primarily related to household Pleasanton 73% 27% income, composition, and age of the householder. In 2000, 65 percent of Dublin residents owned the units San Ramon 71% 29% they occupied, while 35 percent rented (Table C-13). Alameda County 55% 45% This rate of homeownership is the lowest among Source: Census,2000. neighboring communities, but 10 percentage points higher than the countywide rate. On average, owner-households were larger than renter-households in 2000 (Table C-14). Among those who owned their homes in 2000, 50 percent were households with more than three persons, compared to 35 percent for the renter-households. Table C-14: Tenure by Household Size Households Owner- Renter- Occupied Occupied 1 person 17% 30% 2 person 33% 36% 3 person 20% 16% 4 person 19% 11% 5+person 11% 8% Average household size 2.80 2.37 Source:Census,2000. The City values its rental housing stock as an important means of meeting the housing needs of all income segments of the community. In 2005, the City Council passed a Condominium Conversion Ordinance to preserve the existing rental housing stock. The Ordinance establishes an annual maximum number of rental apartment units that can be converted to seven percent of the total number ,,, Appendix C-19 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) of multi-family units in developments of 21 or more rental units. The Ordinance also establishes tenant notification and relocation assistance requirements, limits rent increases once a notice of intent to convert has been filed, and gives tenants the right to purchase units. New condominium conversions are also subject to the City's Inclusionary Zoning Regulations. The City will continue to implement its Condominium Conversion Ordinance to preserve the existing multi-family rental housing stock in Dublin. Housing Vacancy A certain number of vacant units are needed to moderate the cost of housing, allow sufficient choice for residents, and provide an incentive for unit upkeep and repair. Specifically, vacancy rates of approximately two percent for ownership housing and five to six percent for rental housing are generally considered optimal by housing professionals to balance demand and supply for housing. According to the Census, the overall vacancy rate in Dublin was 5.5 percent in 2000. Specifically, the vacancy rate for ownership housing was 0.7 percent in 2000, while the rental vacancy rate was 8.1 percent. Among the vacant units, 54 percent were multi-family units, while 46 percent consisted of single-family dwelling. Furthermore, 53 percent of the vacant units were available for-sale and only seven percent were available for-rent, indicating the majority of the multi-family vacant units were condominium/townhome units. Remaining vacant units were either rented or sold, but were temporarily vacant and held for seasonal, recreational or occasional use. The low for-sale vacancy rate in 2000 reflected the tight housing market in the Bay Area. However, recent changes in the housing market has most likely resulted in higher vacancy rates for ownership units but tightened the rental market. Housing Costs and Affordability The cost of housing is directly related to the extent of housing problems in a community. If housing costs are relatively high in comparison to household income, there will be a correspondingly higher prevalence of housing overpayment and overcrowding. This section summarizes the cost and affordability of the housing stock to Dublin residents. Homeownership Market The California Association of Realtors publishes quarterly median home prices (including single- family homes and condominiums) for areas throughout California. Dublin, along with all nearby communities and the County of Alameda, experienced a drop in the median home sales prices between January 2007 and January 2008. The median home sales price in Dublin was $483,000 in January 2008, down 19.2 percent from January 2007 (Table C-15). When compared to nearby jurisdictions, Dublin's January 2008 median home price was among the lowest of nearby jurisdictions. Asking prices for single-family homes and condominiums in Dublin were also collected from the Multiple Listing Service (MLS) database in an effort to understand Dublin's recent real estate market. The MLS listed 148 single-family detached homes and 75 attached homes for sale in April 2008 (Table C-16). The median asking price for a unit was $628,995, with a range of $255,000 to $2,138,000. Detached units were priced higher ($727,000 median) than attached units ($475,000 median). Although asking price is generally more than actual selling price, the asking price of homes listed on the MLS real estate database in April 2008 ($628,995) was significantly higher than the median sale price of homes in January 2008 ($483,000) as reported by the California Association of Realtors. This observed discrepancy suggests that it could take several months to sell many of the Appendix C-20 0- Oak City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) listed homes and other homes will either be taken off the market or ultimately offered at reduced prices. In October 2008, the housing market seemed to have recovered slightly, showing in fact, a small increase in median sales price. This median price of$510,000 though, was still significantly below the asking prices observed in April 2008. Table C-15: Median Home Sales Prices: 2007-2008 o January January October /o Change %Change Jurisdiction Jan-Oct 2007 2008 2008 2007-2008 2008 Castro Valley $610,000 $562,500 $475,000 -7.8% -15.6% Dublin $597,500 $483,000 $510,000 -19.2% 5.6% Livermore $615,000 $473,000 $390,000 -23.1% -17.5% Pleasanton $714,500 $665,000 $690,000 -6.9% 3.8% San Ramon $760,000 $753,500 $710,500 -0.9% -5.7% Alameda County $575,000 $500,000 F$370,000 -13.0% -26.0% Source:California Association of Realtors,http://www.car.or;>/index.php?id=MzgyOTM=,accessed on March 28 and November 15,2008. rw Table C-16: Home Asking Prices: April 2008 Number Median Unit Type for Sale Asking Price Range Asking Price Detached Homes 148 $349,900 to$2,138,000 $727,000 2-Bedroom 1 $590,000 $590,000 3-Bedroom 40 $349,900 to$929,000 $599,000 4-Bedroom 70 $475,000 to$1,380,000 $699,999 5+Bedroom 37 $789,000 to$2,138,000 $1,158,000 Attached Homes 75 $255,000 to$774,975 $475,000 1-Bedroom 10 $255,000 to$389,000 $299,950 2-Bedroom 27 $285,000 to$569,950 $439,900 3+-Bedroom 38 $395,000 to$774,975 $537,500 All Listings 223 j $255,000 to$2,138,000 $628,995 Source:MLS Listings,April,2008. Irw Rental Market The website www.rent.com reported rental price information for 10 apartment complexes within the City of Dublin (Table C-17). In April 2008, only one development offered studio apartments that rented from $1,315 to $1,525. One-bedroom units within the 10 developments rented for $1,205 to $1,940. Larger units were more expensive; two-bedroom units were offered at rents ranging from $1,515 to $2,350, while three-bedroom units ranged from$1,980 to $ 2,765 per month. Appendix C-21 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) Table C-17: Apartment Rental Rates: April 2008 Apartment Complex Rental Price Range Avalon Dublin One-Bedroom $1,205 to$1,385 Two-Bedroom $1,550 to$1650 Three-Bedroom $1,980 Ironhorse Trail One-Bedroom $1,263 to$1,338 Two-Bedroom $1,692 to$1,778 Three-Bedroom $2,480 to$2,630 Dublin Ranch Senior Community One-Bedroom $1,300 to$1,455 Two-Bedroom $1,515 to$1,620 The Groves at Dublin Ranch One-Bedroom $1,300 to$1,455 Two-Bedroom $1,695 to$1,795 k- Three-Bedroom $1,995 Avalon Dublin Station Studio $1,315 to$1,525 One-Bedroom $1,530 to$1,850 Two-Bedroom $2,030 to$2,350 Three-Bedroom $2,475 to$2,765 Park Sierra One-Bedroom $1,325 to$1,805 Two-Bedroom $1,695 to$2,055 Emerald Park One-Bedroom $1,385 to$1,765 Two-Bedroom $1,870 to$2,250 Three-Bedroom $2,360 to$2,475 Cotton Wood Apartments One-Bedroom $1,410 to$1,520 Two-Bedroom $1,585 to$1,800 Waterford Place One-Bedroom $1,445 to$1,940 Two-Bedroom $1,935 to$2,320 Archstone Emerald Park One-Bedroom $1,530 to$1,750 Two-Bedroom $1,800 to$2,110 Three-Bedroom $2,370 to$2,485 Source: www.rent.com,accessed on April 2,2008. Note: This table does not reflect a comprehensive listing of apartment communities in Dublin. Appendix C-22 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Housing Affordability by Household Income Housing affordability can be inferred by comparing the cost of renting or owning a home in the City with the maximum affordable housing costs for households at different income levels. Taken together, this information can generally show who can afford what size and type of housing and indicate the type of households most likely to experience overcrowding and overpayment. The federal Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) conducts annual household income surveys nationwide to determine a household's eligibility for federal housing assistance. Based on this survey, the California Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD) developed income limits that can be used to determine the maximum price that could be affordable to households in the upper range of their respective income category. Households in the lower end of each category can afford less by comparison than those at the upper end. The maximum affordable rW home and rental prices for residents of Alameda County are shown in Table C-18. The market- affordability of Dublin's housing stock for each income group is discussed below. Extremely Low and Very Low Income Households Extremely low income households earn 30 percent or less of the Area Median Income (AMI). Generally, the maximum affordable rental payment ranges from $384 per month for a one-person household to $567 per month for a family of five (Table C-18). The maximum affordable home purchase price for extremely low income households ranges from$52,779 for a one-person household to $76,444 for a five-person household. Very low-income households are classified as those earning 50 percent or less of the AMI. The maximum affordable rental payment ranges from $685 per month for a one-person household to $1,032 per month for a family of five (Table C-18). The maximum affordable home purchase price for very low income households ranges from $96,561 for a one-person household to $143,993 for a five person household. Based on the rental data presented in Table C-17, extremely low and very low income households of all sizes would be unlikely to secure adequately sized and affordable rental housing in Dublin. According to the MLS real estate database, no houses of adequate size were listed for sale at prices affordable to extremely low and very low in April 2008 (Table C-16). Low Income Households Low income households earn 51 to 80 percent of the County AMI. The maximum home price a low income household can afford ranges from $140,343 for a one-person household to $211,542 for a five-person family. Affordable rental rates for low-income households would range from $836 for a one-person household to $1,265 for a five-person household. Based upon a review of homes listed for sale in April 2008, low-income households would have a similar problem as extremely low and very low income households in purchasing an adequately sized home at an affordable price (Table C-16). Low income households have a better chance in securing an adequately sized and affordable rental housing unit (Table C-17). However, the limited number of apartment complexes offering three-bedroom units in Dublin at prices affordable to larger low income households is indicative of the potential difficulty these households face. Moderate Income Households Moderate income households earn up to 120 percent of the County AMI. The maximum affordable home price for moderate income households ranges from $268,040 for a one-person household to Appendix C-23 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) $408,561 for a family of five. A moderate income household can afford rental rates of $1,589 to $2,427 per month depending on household size. Based on these maximum affordable home prices and the real estate data presented in Table C-17, moderate income households could afford many of the attached homes and a limited number of detached homes listed for sale in April 2008. Also, moderate income households could afford a wide range of rental units advertised in Dublin in April 2008. Table C-18: Housing Affordability Matrix Alameda County Income Levels Utilities,Taxes& Insurance Maximum Affordable Price Income Group Annual Affordable Home Renter Taxes Home Renter Income Payment Owner &Ins. Owner Extremely Low(0-30%AMI) One Person $18,100 $452 $71 $68 $90 $52,779 $384 Small Family $23,250 $581 $108 $101 $116 $64,823 $480 Large Family $27,900 $697 $137 $130 $140 $76,444 $567 Very Low(31-50%AMI) One Person $30,150 $753 $71 $68 $151 $96,561 $685 Small Family $38,750 $969 $108 $101 $194 $121,114 $868 Large Family $46,500 $1,162 $137 $130 $232 $143,993 $1,032 Low(51-80%AMI) One Person $46,350 $904 $71 $68 $211 $140,343 $836 Small Family $59,600 $1,162 $108 $101 $271 $177,405 $1,061 Large Family $71,550 $1,395 $137 $130 $325 $211,542 $1,265 Moderate(81-120%AMI) One Person $72,300 $1,657 $71 $68 $387 $268,040 $1,589 Small Family $93,000 $2,131 $108 $101 $497 $341,587 $2,030 Large Family $111,600 $2,557 $137 $130 $597 $408,561 $2,427 Assumptions: 2008 HCD income limits; Health and Safety code definitions of affordable housing costs (between 30 and 35%of household income depending on tenure and income level); HUD utility allowances; 20%of monthly affordable cost for taxes and insurance; 10% down payment; and 6.2% interest rate for a 30-year fixed-rate mortgage loan. Taxes and insurance apply to owner costs only; renters do not usually pay taxes or insurance. Small Family = 3 person household. Large Family=5 person household. Sources: 1. State Department of Housing and Community Development 2008 Income Limits 2. Housing Authority of the County of Alameda,Utility Allowances- 11/1/07. 3. Veronica Tam and Associates This Housing Element includes a variety of programs designed to improve the adequacy and affordability of housing in Dublin and to assist renters and homeowners who cannot afford housing (see Housing Programs). In 2006, the City initiated a First Time Homebuyer Loan Program (FTHLP) to assist lower and moderate income households with financing towards the purchase of a home. The FTHLP program provides 30-year deferred loans for households earning up to 140 percent of the County median income. Staff held two orientations, one for realtors and one for the lending community, outlining the program. A housing consultant was also hired to assist in the development of the loan documents and Appendix C-24 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) guidelines for the program. These efforts helped make the City's first full year of implementation a success as the City funded 18 loans totaling $557,196 in Fiscal Year 2007-2008. The City will continue to fund and implement the FTHLP. The City will also continue to support the Tri-Valley Housing Opportunity Center (TVHOC) or other similar programs, which provide information on " affordable housing in the Tri-Valley area. The City adopted an Inclusionary Zoning Ordinance in 2002 to assure that housing development contributes to the attainment of the City's housing goals by increasing the production of residential units affordable by households of very low, low, and moderate income. Under the Ordinance, all new residential development projects of 20 units or more designed and intended for permanent occupancy must construct 12.5 percent of the total number of dwelling units within the development as affordable units. Of the affordable rental units, 30 percent must be set aside for very low income households, 20 percent for low income households, and 50 percent for moderate income households; of the owner occupied affordable units, 40 percent must be set aside for low income households and 60 percent for moderate income households. Upon request, the City Council can allow the applicant to pay a fee in lieu of constructing up to 40 percent of the affordable units that the developer would otherwise be required to construct. In certain instances, the City Council may allow a developer to construct the affordable units "off-site" and an applicant may dedicate land to the City or city- designated local non-profit housing developer in lieu of construction of some or all of the required affordable units. A total of$7,040,363.58 has been loaned to three affordable housing projects, the Groves at Dublin Ranch, Wicklow Square and Arroyo Vista. To date Inclusionary Zoning In-Lieu Fee funds have produced 680 units with an additional 378 units currently in planning review. The City will continue to enforce the provisions of its Inclusionary Zoning Ordinance to further Housing Element goals and policies related to meeting the housing needs of all income segments of the community. F. Affordable Housing Inventory Nine assisted rental housing developments in Dublin provide 1,091 affordable rental units (Table C- 19). The inventory of assisted units includes a review of all multi-family rental units under federal, state, and/or local programs, including HUD programs, state and local bond programs, redevelopment programs, and local in-lieu fees (inclusionary, density bonus, or direct assistance programs). All of these projects are recent developments with the exception of Arroyo Vista which is planned for 40 redevelopment. Deed restrictions ensure the long-term affordability of below market rate units. No project is at risk of converting to market rate within the planning period (July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2014)due to expiration of deed restrictions or subsidy contracts. The City is currently working with the Alameda County Housing Authority to redevelop the 150-unit r Arroyo Vista project. This older public housing project is being redeveloped into a mixed-income project and will provide a total of 378 housing units of which 180 will be affordable housing units, resulting in a net increase of 30 new affordable units. The City and the Housing Authority will ensure that all State and federal relocation and displacement requirements are met. 40 Appendix C-25 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Table C-19: Inventory of Assisted Rental Housing Total Assisted Earliest #Units Project Name Units Units Type Funding Source Date of At Conversion Risk Senior/ Housing Arroyo Vista 150 150 Disabled/ —Authority 2055 0 Public Public Housing Tax Credits Park Siena 283 57 Senior 2055 0 Bonds Tax Credits Pine Groves/Cedar Groves 322 292 Senior Bonds 2062 0 City Loan Wicklow Square 54 53 Senior/ Tax Credits 2059 0 Disabled City Loan Iron Horse Trails 177 2 Senior/ Private 2032 0 Disabled HCD MHP Senior/ Grant Camellia Place 112 111 Disabled/ Tax Credits 2062 0 Family CaIHFA Bonds HOME Tax Credits Oak Groves 304 243 Family Bonds 2061 0 City Loan Avalon at Dublin Station 305 30 Family Private 2062 0 Total 2,011 1,091 0 Source: Alameda-Contra Costa Tri-Valley Affordable Housing Directory, 2007; California Housing Partnership Coalition, 2008;City of Dublin,2008. G. Estimates of Housing Needs The Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy (CHAS) developed by the Census for HUD provides detailed information on housing needs by income level for different types of households in Dublin. Detailed CHAS data based on the 2000 Census is displayed in Table C-20. Based on CHAS, housing problems in Dublin include: • Units with physical defects (lacking complete kitchen or bathroom); • Overcrowded conditions (housing units with more than one person per room); • Housing cost burden, including utilities, exceeding 30 percent of gross income; or • Severe housing cost burden, including utilities, exceeding 50 percent of gross income. The types of problems vary according to household income, type, and tenure. Some highlights include: • In general, renter-households had a higher level of housing problems (41 percent) compared to owner-households (33 percent). Appendix C-26 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) • Elderly renters had the highest level of housing problems regardless of income level (76 percent). All extremely low and low income elderly renters experienced a housing problem, including overpayment(cost burden). • A larger proportion of very low income households had a housing problem (81 percent) than extremely low(77 percent) and low income(78 percent)households. • Of the 321 extremely low income Dublin households identified in 2000, approximately 76 percent incurred a housing cost burden exceeding 30 percent of monthly income and 71 percent incurred a housing cost burden exceeding 50 percent of monthly income. • Projected housing needs for extremely low income households through the end of the planning period include a need for additional Housing Choice Vouchers and new or substantially rehabilitated rental housing of adequate size and at affordable rates to avoid or alleviate the problems of overcrowding and cost burden. Table C-20: Housing Assistance Needs Renters Owners Total Household by Type,Income Elderly Small Large Total Total Households Elderly &Housing Problem Families Families Renters Owners Extremely Low Income 12 48 12 137 72 184 321 0-30%MFI %with any housing 100% 92% 100% 83% 72% 73% 77% problem IWO %with cost burden>30% 100% 83% 100% 80% 72% 73% 76% t %with cost burden>50% 100% 83% 67% 77% 61% 67% 71% Very Low Income 31-50%MF 77 199 29 374 92 214 588 %with any housing 95% 80% 48% 82% 63% 80% 81% problem %with cost burden>30% 95% 73% 35% 77% 63% 80% 78% %with cost burden>50% 82% 35% 35% 51% 33% 56% 53% Low Income 39 188 49 425 109 395 820 51-80%MFI %with any housing 100% 81% 100% 91% 31% 64% 78% problem %with cost burden>30% 100% 77% 71% 86% 31% 61% 74% %with cost burden>50% 26% 16% 0% 32% 18% 31% 32% Total Households 186 1,494 219 3,252 708 6,027 9,279 Fwith any housing 76% 37% 61% 41% 26% 0 0 oblem 33/0 36/o Source:HUD Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy(CHAS),2000. Notes: Data presented in this table are based on special tabulations from sample Census data. The number of households in each category usually deviates slightly from the 100 percent count due to the need to extrapolate sample data out to total households. Interpretations of these data should focus on the proportion of households in need of assistance rather than on precise numbers. 4•., A^ Appendix C-27 low City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) 2. Housing Constraints Although the City of Dublin strives to ensure the provision of adequate and affordable housing to meet the needs of the community, many factors can constrain the development, maintenance, and improvement of housing. These include market mechanisms, government regulations, and physical as well as environmental constraints. This section addresses these potential constraints that affect the supply and cost of housing in Dublin. A. Market Constraints Several local and regional constraints hinder the ability to accommodate Dublin's demand for affordable housing. The high cost of land, rising development costs, and neighborhood opposition can make it expensive for developers to build affordable housing. These constraints may result in housing that is not affordable to lower and moderate income households, or may render some potential residential projects economically infeasible for developers. Land and Construction Costs High development costs in the region stifle potential affordable housing developments. Construction costs for residential units have increased rapidly over the last decade, to the point where a typical new two-bedroom apartment costs over $300,000 to develop, including land and entitlements costs.' Furthermore, neighborhood resistance to projects can draw out the entitlement process and drive up costs. The difficulty of developing awkward infill sites can also add to the cost of housing. Reduction in amenities and the quality of building materials (above a minimum acceptability for health, safety, and adequate performance) could lower costs and associated sales prices or rents. In addition, prefabricated factory-built housing may provide for lower priced housing by reducing construction and labor costs. Another factor related to construction costs is the number of units built at one time. As the number of units increases, overall costs generally decrease due to economies of scale. The price of raw land and any necessary improvements is a key component of the total cost of housing. The diminishing supply of land available for residential construction combined with a fairly steady demand for housing has served to keep the cost of land high. High and rapidly increasing land costs have resulted in home builders developing increasingly expensive homes in order to capture profits. Although land cost data was not available for the City of Dublin, an undeveloped 5,000- to 6,000-square-foot residential lot in neighboring San Ramon was estimated to cost $300,000 or more in 2004.8 Construction costs are the largest component of total costs for a single-family detached unit, accounting for 30 to 40 percent of the finished sale price. According to RS Means Residential Square Foot Costs (2008), construction costs for an average two-story single-family home (2,000 square feet of living area), and built of stucco on wood frame total $108.50 per square foot in the Dublin area. For multi-family attached units, construction costs are slightly lower as developers can usually benefit from economies of scale with discounts for materials and diffusion of equipment mobilization costs. ' City of Oakland,Community and Economic Development agency,March 16,2005: s http:,ifindarticles.comip,articles'mi gn4176 is 200402011ai 1114567901,accessed on March 17,2008. Appendix C-28 Oft City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) A density bonus up to 35 percent over the otherwise maximum allowable residential density under the applicable zoning district is available to developers who provide affordable housing as part of their projects. Developers of affordable housing are also entitled to at least one concession or incentive as established in the Zoning Ordinance. Density bonuses, together with the incentives and/or concessions, result in a lower average cost of land per dwelling unit, thereby making the provision of affordable housing more feasible. The City regularly updates its Density Bonus Ordinance to reflect changes in State law. Home Financing The availability of financing affects a person's ability to purchase or improve a home. Under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act(HMDA), lending institutions are required to disclose information on the disposition of loan applications by the income, gender, and race of the applicants. This applies to all loan applications for home purchases, improvements and refinancing, whether financed at market rate or with federal government assistance. Locally assisted mortgages (such as first-time homebuyer programs) are not subject to HMDA reporting. Table C-21 summarizes the disposition of loan applications submitted to financial institutions for home purchase, refinance, and home improvement within City of Dublin.9 Included is information on loan applications that were approved and originated10, approved but not accepted by the applicant, denied,withdrawn by the applicant, or closed for incomplete information. Table C-21: Disposition of Home Loans- 2006 rw Home Purchase Home Disposition Government-Backed Conventional Refinances Improvement # % # % # % # % Approved,Originated 0 0% 1,093 59% 1,402 54% 153 51% 0 Approved,Not Accepted 0 0% 243 13% 280 11% 36 12% Denied 1 100% 306 17% 522 20% 84 28% Withdrawn 0 0% 181 10% 292 11% 22 7% Incomplete 0 0% 28 2% 101 4% 4 1 Total 1 100% 1,851 100% 2,597 100% 299 100% 0 Source:Home Mortgage Disclosure Act(HMDA)data,2007. Home Purchase Loans In 2006, a total of 1,851 households applied for conventional loans to purchase homes in Dublin. The overall loan approval rate was 72 percent and 17 percent of applications were denied. In the Metropolitan Area(Alameda and Contra Costa Counties), the approval rate was 66 percent and denial rate was 23 percent. 0 0 Only one application submitted for the purchase of the home in Dublin through a government-backed loan (e.g. FHA, VA) and was denied. To be eligible for such loans, residents must meet the 0 established income standards and the price of the home is capped according to the specific funding 9 HMDA data does not provide information based on political boundaries,but by census tract. The data for the City of Dublin was compiled by aggregating data for census tracts that generally approximate Dublin city limits. io An originated loan is one that is approved by the financial institution and accepted by the loan applicant. Appendix C-29 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) program regulations. In 2006, the market was still relatively tight and prices were high. Most lower and moderate income households would have had difficulty meeting both income and home price restrictions. The City provides opportunities for first-time homebuyers to purchase homes in Dublin. The City launched a First Time Homebuyer Loan Program (FTHLP) in October 2006. Since January 2007, 24 households received down payment assistance loans totaling $831,750.00. Refinance Loans Relatively low interest rates and the availability of interest-only, adjustable-rate, and balloon-payment mortgages resulted in 2,597 applications filed by Dublin residents for home refinancing in 2006. Slightly less than two-thirds (65 percent) of these applications were approved, while another 20 percent were denied. Within the Metropolitan Area, 57 percent of the refinancing applications were approved and 29 percent were denied. Close to 129,000 households applied for refinancing in the Metropolitan Area in 2006. Home Improvement Loans A larger proportion of Dublin applicants were denied for home improvement loans than any other type of loan. Although 28 percent of applicants were denied, 63 percent of applications for home improvement loans were approved by lending institutions in 2006. The large proportion of home , . improvement loan denials may be explained by the nature of these loans. These loans are usually second loans and therefore, many households may have already carried a high debt-to-income ratio to qualify for additional financing. In comparison though, residents in the Metropolitan Area had more difficulty in accessing home improvement financing; 36 percent of the loan applications were denied and 53 percent were approved. Foreclosures With low interest rates, "creative" financing (e.g., zero down, interest only, adjustable loans), and predatory lending practices (e.g. aggressive marketing, hidden fees, negative amortization), many households nationwide purchased homes that were beyond their financial means between 2000 and 2006. Under the false assumption that refinancing to lower interest rates would always be an option and home prices would continue to rise, many households were unprepared for the hikes in interest rates, expiration of short-term fixed rates, and decline in sales prices (shrinking the equity available) that set off in 2006. Suddenly faced with significantly inflated mortgage payments, and mortgage loans that are larger than the worth of the homes, many had to resort to foreclosing their homes. In Alameda County, 2,573 homeowners filed Notices of Default (NODs) and 1,026 homes were foreclosed upon in the fourth quarter of 2007.11 DataQuick reports that approximately 46 percent of homeowners who go into default are able to work out financial arrangements to either keep their houses or sell them and pay off their debts.12 With the implosion of the mortgage lending market, many households have difficulty obtaining new mortgage loans or refinancing, even for above moderate income households. According to data provided by the Bay East Association of Realtors (BEAR), 191 properties in Dublin were in active foreclosures while 94 properties were in pending foreclosures in November htt '/stbay.redfin.comb1o112008%01/alameda county foreclosures during, 2007 and december sales.html, accessed April 8,2008. 12 http://wwev.sac bee.com:103/stop,;455762.html,accessed April 8,2008. Appendix C-30 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) 2008 (Table C-22). Based on the average listing prices of active foreclosures, households of moderate and above moderate income households are also impacted for the current mortgage crisis. Table C-22: Active and Pending Foreclosures Active Detached Attached Special Information Count %Active Average'LP' Count %Active Average'LP' Not Real Estate Owned (REO)or Potential Short 56 52.34% $805,762.82 43 51.19% $470,610.42 Sell PSS PSS 35 32.71% $692,937.11 25 29.76% $344,513.44 REO 16 14.95% $553,056.25 16 19.05% $350,943.75 Total 107 $731,069.32 84 $410,287.90 Pending Detached Attached Special Information Count %Pend Average'LP' Count %Pend Average'LP' Not Real Estate Owned (REO)or Potential Short 22 42.31% $672,158.55 13 30.95% $437,048.15 Sell PSS PSS 23 44.23% $789,380.43 18 42.86% $394,550.00 REO 7 13.46% $528,283.71 11 26.19% $345,436.36 Total 52 $704,638.92 42 $394,841.10 Source:Bay East Association of Realtors,November 2008. rw Construction Financing Prior to the recession of the early 1990s, and significant changes in lending practices following the savings and loan scandal of the late 1980s, developers could receive loans for 100 percent or more of 0 a project's estimated future value. Now, construction and permanent loans are rarely available for 0 over 75 percent of the future project value for multifamily developments. This means that developers must usually supply at least 25 percent of the project value. The financing of a residential project, particularly affordable housing is quite complex. No firm threshold determines an acceptable `return' on investment, nor the maximum equity contribution at 0 which an otherwise feasible project becomes infeasible. Upfront cash commitment may not be 0 problematic for some developers as long as the project can generate an acceptable net cash flow to meet the acceptable returns. Although financing costs impact project feasibility, these problems are generally equal across jurisdictions and thus are not a unique constraint to housing production in Dublin. 0 0 0 0 0 Appendix C-31 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) B. Governmental Constraints City ordinances, policies, and other regulations can impact the price and availability of housing in Dublin. Land use controls, site improvement requirements, building codes, fees, and other local programs to improve the overall quality of housing may serve as constraints to housing development. The following public policies can affect overall housing availability, adequacy, and affordability. Land Use Controls The Dublin General Plan, Eastern Dublin Specific Plan, Downtown Core Specific Plan, Village Parkway Specific Plan, and West Dublin BART Specific Plan establish land use designations for three areas of the City: • Primary Planning Area; • Eastern Extended Planning Area; and • Western Extended Planning Area. Primary Planning Area The Primary Planning Area includes the area within the 1982 City boundaries. The General Plan, Downtown Core Specific Plan, Village Parkway Specific Plan, and West Dublin BART Specific Plan establish the following land use controls within the Primary Planning Area: General Plan: • Low-Density Single-Family (0.5 to 3.8 units per gross residential acre): Detached dwelling units. • Single-Family (0.9 to 6.0 units per gross residential acre): Detached and zero lot line (no side yard)units and attached or detached second units. • Medium Density (6.1 to 14.0 units per gross residential acre): Detached, zero-lot line, duplex, townhouse, and garden apartment development. • Medium-High Density (14.1 to 25.0 units per gross residential acre): Attached dwelling units, including duplexes, triplexes, quadriplexes, townhouses, flats and garden apartments. • Medium-High Density and Retail/Office (14.1 to 25.0 units per gross residential acre with FAR's of 0.25 to 0.60): Attached dwelling units, including duplexes, triplexes, quadriplexes, townhouses, flats and garden apartments; shopping centers, stores, restaurants, business and professional offices, motels, service stations and sale of automotive parts. • Public/Semi-Public Facilities (FAR up to 0.50): Development of housing permitted when developed by a non-profit entity and serves to meet affordable housing needs or the housing needs of an underserved economic segment of the community. Downtown Core Specific Plan: • High Density (25.0+ units per acre): High density residential dwellings with a density range in excess of 25 units per acre. Appendix C-32 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) • Mixed Use: Medium or High Density residential land uses with at least one non-residential land use type such as office or retail. Office or retail uses may include shopping centers, stores, restaurants, business and professional offices, and entertainment facilities. Allowable FAR is 0.50 to 1.00 and the employee density target is 200 to 450 square feet per employee. The floor area ratio is for the combined commercial and residential uses. Village Parkway Specific Plan: • Residential Uses: Includes multi-family residences and caretaker units. West Dublin BART Specific Plan: • Residential: Medium and High density residential dwellings with a High Density range of 30-58 units per acre. • Mixed Use: Residential and at least one non-residential land use type such as office or retail. Office or retail uses may include shopping centers, stores, restaurants, business and professional offices, and entertainment facilities. For development in the Transit Village area adjacent to the BART Station, a FAR exceeding 1.00 and up to 1.20 for hotel use is acceptable because of its proximity to regional transportation facilities. • Public/Semi-Public (FAR 0.50): Development of housing permitted when developed by a rw non-profit entity and serves to meet affordable housing needs or the housing needs of an underserved economic segment of the community. Eastern Extended Planning Area The Eastern Extended Planning Area is located east of Dublin's older urbanized area and consists of 4,285 acres, of which 2,359 acres is designated for residential uses. Residential designations for the Single-Family, Medium-Density, Medium High-Density, Medium-High Density and Retail/Office, and Public/Semi-Public Facilities categories in the Primary Planning Area are applicable in the Eastern Extended Planning Area. The following additional residential designations have been developed for the Eastern Extended Planning Area: • Rural Residential/Agriculture (1 unit per 100 gross residential acres): Accommodates large lot low density residential uses in association with agricultural activities and other open space uses, such as range and watershed management. • High Density (25.1 units and above per gross residential acre): Attached dwelling units including condominiums, townhouses, apartments, and flats. • Mixed Use (FAR - 0.30 to 1.00): Combination of medium to medium high density residential housing and at least one non-residential use, such as office or retail. Office or retail uses could include uses such as stores,restaurants business and professional offices, and entertainment facilities. The floor area ratio is for the combined commercial and residential uses. Western Extended Planning Area Located along the north side of I-580, west of the City's older urbanized area, the Western Extended Planning Area covers approximately 3,255 acres. The Single-Family designation of the Primary Planning Area and the Rural Residential/Agriculture designation of the Eastern Extended Planning Appendix C-33 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Area are applicable in the Western Extended Planning Area. An additional residential designation unique to this planning area is the Estate designation. The Estate designation is intended for typical ranchettes and estate homes at 0.01 to 0.8 units per gross acre. An Urban Limit Line was adopted by initiative on November 7, 2000 for the Western Extended Planning Area. The Urban Limit Line is located along the City limit line as of the initiative's effective date. Pursuant to the initiative, lands west of the Urban Limit Line are designated as Rural Residential/Agriculture on the General Plan Land Use Map and are within the City's Sphere of Influence. The Initiative is effective for thirty (30) years and the Line's location may be changed only with voter approval during the effective period, and only following review and approval of a General Plan Amendment by the City Council. Any request to change the Urban Limit Line must be accompanied by a request to amend the land use designation to an urban designation. The Urban Limit Line is established to discourage urban sprawl. The City has adequate capacity within the Urban Limit Line to meet its housing needs and therefore, this Line does not present an actual constraint to housing development. Livermore Airport Protection Area(APA) The Livermore Airport is owned and operated by the City of Livermore. The Airport is a General Aviation Airport which serves private, business, and corporate tenants and customers. The airport is located three miles northwest of the City of Livermore adjacent to the Las Positas Golf Course and the Water Reclamation Plant and is situated on 643 acres. Parts of eastern Dublin fall within the Livermore Airport Protection Area and projects proposed =t within this area are subject to review by the Alameda County Airport Land Use Commission for consistency with the Alameda County Airport Land Use Compatibility Plan. The Airport Land Use Commission has 60 days for the review. However, the City Council has the authority to override the Commission's review with a four-fifth vote. Currently, the Dublin General Plan allows some low and medium density residential uses within the Livermore APA if, at the time of prezoning, the residential designations are consistent with the APA. If, at the time of prezoning, the residential designations are inconsistent with the APA, the residential designations would convert to Future Study Area with an underlying Rural Residential/Agriculture designation. The APA is not a constraint on housing development in Dublin as the General Plan designation of lands within the current City Limits is consistent with the Alameda County Airport Land Use Compatibility Plan. Conclusion The City's residential land use designations facilitate and encourage the provision of a wide range of housing types including single-family dwellings, mobile homes, townhomes, condominiums, second dwelling units, and multi-family units at various densities. Therefore, Dublin's land use regulations are not a constraint to residential development. Appendix C-34 low City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Residential Development Standards The City regulates the type, location, density, and scale of residential development primarily through the Zoning Ordinance. Zoning regulations are designed to protect and promote the health, safety, and general welfare of residents as well as implement the policies of the General Plan. The following zoning districts allow residential uses: • Agricultural (A): The A zoning district is intended, in part, to preserve and protect agricultural lands that are being used for the commercial production of agricultural commodities consistent with the General Plan and applicable Specific Plans and appropriate standards of public health, safety, welfare, and aesthetics. Agricultural housing, mobile homes and single-family homes on large rural lots are permitted in the A district. • Single-Family Residential (R-1): The R-1 district is intended to provide for and protect neighborhoods comprised of detached, single-family homes and residential use types compatible with a quiet, family-living environment. The district is consistent with the Low- Density Single-Family Residential, Single Family-Residential, and Medium Density Residential designations of the General Plan depending on the lot square footage per dwelling unit of an area. The lot square footage per dwelling unit of an area in the R-1 district is expressed as a suffix to the R-1 Zoning Map symbol(e.g., R-1-5,000, R-1-10,000, etc.). • Two-Family Residential (R-2): The R-2 district is intended to provide for two-family dwellings that have characteristics similar to single-family neighborhoods, duplexes, and residential use types compatible with a quiet living environment. The R-2 district is consistent with the Medium Density Residential, and Medium-High Density Residential designations of the General Plan depending on the lot square footage per dwelling unit of an area. The lot square footage per dwelling unit of an area in the R-2 district is expressed as a suffix to the R-2 Zoning Map symbol. • Multi-Family Residential (R-M): The R-M district is intended to provide for and protect neighborhoods comprised of single family residences, two family residences, and multi- family residences that are clustered to provide generous open space areas for common use, and that are generally close to transit, shopping, and public facilities. The R-M district is consistent with the Medium Density Residential, Medium-High Density Residential, and High-Density Residential designations of the General Plan depending on the lot square footage per dwelling unit of an area. The lot square footage per dwelling unit of an area in the R-M district is expressed as a suffix to the R-M Zoning Map symbol. Dublin's Zoning Ordinance establishes residential development standards for each zone to ensure quality of development in the community (Table C-23). Characteristic standards applicable to residential development in the City include standards for lot area, lot width and frontage, lot coverage, setbacks, height limits, and parking. Developers of certain affordable and senior housing may request a variety of incentives, including concessions, modifications, or waivers of otherwise applicable development standards set forth in Chapter 8.36 of the Zoning Ordinance. Reduced setbacks, concentration of affordable units, and reduced bedroom sizes were granted to facilitate the development of 596 affordable housing units at the Oak Groves and Pine Groves/Cedar Groves projects within The Groves at Dublin Ranch(formerly known as Fairway Ranch). For properties within Specific Plan areas, development standards are provided within the respective Specific Plan and tailored to individual projects through the Planned Development Zoning and site Appendix C-35 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) plan review process. This provides developers with a basic set of development standards and guidelines as well as flexibility to enhance project feasibility and deviate from traditional development standards contained in the Zoning Ordinance. Flexible development standards include parking requirements, lot coverage, setbacks, and landscaping among other standards. Table C-23: Residential Development Standards Standard A R-1 R-2 R-M Lot Area Interior Lot 100 acres 4,000 sq. ft. 8,000 sq. ft. 5,000 sq. ft. Corner Lot 100 acres 5,000 sq. ft. 9,000 sq. ft. 6,000 sq. ft. , 4,000 sq. ft. and 4,000 sq. ft. and 750 sq. ft. and larger Min. Lot Size NA larger as consistent larger as consistent as consistent w/ w/General Plan w/General Plan General Plan Lot Width and Frontage Interior Lot 300 ft. 50 ft. 80 ft. 50 ft. Comer Lot 300 ft. 60 ft. 90 ft. 60 ft. Lot Depth NA 100 ft. 100 ft. 100 ft. 1 dwelling unit per full Residential Use 1 dwelling unit 1 dwelling unit 2 dwelling units 750 sq. ft. and larger (Max.Per Lot) 1 Second Unit 1 Second Unit as consistent w/ General Plan Setbacks 20 ft. average 20 ft. average ; Front 50 ft. 18 ft.minimum to 18 ft.minimum 20 ft. garage 2 Side 30 ft. (3) 10 ft. 10 ft. (4) Street Side 50 ft. 10 ft. 10 ft. 10 ft. Rear 50 ft. 20 ft. 20 ft. 30 ft. Other Distance between 100 ft. 10 ft. 20 ft. 20 ft. Residences Max.Lot Coverage NA 40% 1 story, 40% 1 story, 40% 1 story, g 35%2 stories 35%2 stories 35%2 stories Common Useable NA NA NA 30%of net site area Outdoor Space Height Limits (1) (1) (1) (5) Source: City of Dublin Zoning Ordinance,2008. Notes: 1. West of Dougherty Road, 25 ft. and 2 stories may be increased to 35 ft. and 2 stories pursuant to a Site Development Review approval by the Zoning Administrator. East of Dougherty Road,35 ft.and 2 stories. 2. Living spaces may encroach to 15 ft. from Front Lot Line with Site Development Review on lots up to 6,000 sq. ft. in size. 3. Side Yard setbacks in the R-1 zoning district shall be a minimum of 5 ft.plus one foot for each full 10 ft.by which lot width exceeds minimum lot width up to a maximum of 10 ft. 4. Buildings with four or more residences in the R-M zoning district must have a 15-ft. Side Yard on one side. 5. 35 ft. if four or fewer dwelling units;45 ft. if five or more dwelling units; 75 ft. if five or more dwelling units and lot coverage does not exceed 35 percent. The City's height limits are set with respect to neighborhood character and allowable densities. Building height limits in the R-M zone have not constrained residential development. Specifically, Appendix C-36 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) residential development around the existing Dublin/Pleasanton BART Station allows for up to five stories of residential uses over parking, recognizing the advantages of compact transit-oriented development in providing affordable housing opportunities. Parking requirements for different types of residential uses in Dublin are summarized in Table C-24. Dublin's parking requirements for a prototypical 100-unit multi-family residential development are comparable to requirements of nearby cities(Table C-25). The City's requirement is lower than what would be required for the same development in San Ramon and Pleasanton and slightly higher than the requirement in Livermore. Additionally, the City has approved reduced parking standards through the Planned Development Zoning process for multi-family residential and mixed use developments adjacent to the existing Dublin/Pleasanton BART Station and the future West Dublin/Pleasanton BART Station. rw Table C-24: Dublin Parking Requirements for Residential Uses ro Residential Use Types Number of Parking Spaces Required Apartments Studio 1 Bedroom 1 covered or garaged space per dwelling plus 1 parking space for unreserved and guest parking. 2+Bedrooms Condominiums Studio 1 covered or garaged space per dwelling unit plus guest parking. 1 Bedroom 2+Bedrooms 2 covered or garaged spaces per dwelling plus guest parking. Projects with 10 or more dwellings shall provide one additional guest parking Guest Parking space for every 2 dwelling units which shall be marked as a guest parking space. Single-Family/Duplex Lots e 4,000 y/ u ft. 2 in enclosed garage per dwelling*plus one on-street parking space per dwelling unit within 150 feet of that dwelling unit. Lots>4,000 sq.ft. 2 in enclosed garage per dwelling.* Other Parking Requirements Senior Citizen Housing 1 covered or garaged space per dwelling plus one guest parking space for every three dwelling units. Second Unit 1 parking space per unit. The space may be compact,uncovered,and in tandem with the required parking of the principal dwelling unit. Agricultural Housing Community Care Facility, Small 2 per dwelling Mobile Home Mixed Use Residential Mobile Home Park 2 per dwelling,plus 1 guest space for every 2 dwellings Source:City of Dublin,Zoning Ordinance,2008. Notes: *Except if two,full-size,unenclosed parking spaces are provided elsewhere on a lot for the purposes of converting a residential garage to living space. Appendix C-37 Ate: City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Table C-25: Comparison of Parking Requirements for Residential Uses Unit Type Dublin San Ramon Livermore Pleasanton Single-Family 2.0/unit 2.0-4.0/unit 2.0/unit 2.0/unit Multi-Family Studio unit 1.0/unit 1.0/unit 1.75/unit 1.5 -2.0/unie 1-Bedroom unit 1.0/unit 1.0/unit 1.75/unit 1.5 -2.0/unit2 2-Bedroom unit 1.0/unit 2.0/unit 1.75/unit 1.5 -2.0/umt2 3-Bedroom unit 1.0/unit 2.0/unit 1.75/unit 2.0/unit 4-Bedroom+unit 1.0/unit 3.0/unit 1.75/unit 2.0/unit Guest Spaces Varies' 25% None 14% Prototypical Multi- 200 spaces 230 spaces 175 spaces 212 spaces Family Project Sources: City of Dublin Municipal Code, 2008; City of San Ramon Municipal Code, 2008; City of Livermore Municipal Code,2008;and City of Pleasanton Municipal Code,2008. Notes: 1. Requirement ranges from 33% for senior projects to 50% for condominium projects and 100% for apartments. 2. Requirement for first 4 units; 1.5 spaces per unit required for each unit thereafter. Although the provision of off-street parking can increase the cost of housing, Dublin's standards are reasonable as requirements for multi-family developments are less than requirements for single- family detached dwellings and comparable to or lower than parking requirements of nearby jurisdictions. Guest space requirements for multi-family developments are also reasonable because these types of developments do not have private driveways for each unit to accommodate parking for guests as is required for new single-family homes on lots larger than 4,000 square feet. Nevertheless, because the increased cost of off-street parking can impact the financing of housing affordability, reduced parking and other incentives, concessions, or waivers and modifications of development standards are available for affordable projects that are eligible for a density bonus pursuant to Chapter 8.52 of the Zoning Ordinance. Reduced parking standards were approved for the Wicklow Square and The Groves at Dublin Ranch (formerly known as Fairway Ranch) affordable housing developments (Oak Groves and Pine Groves/Cedar Groves). Reduced parking standards are also available for transit-oriented development projects that are proposed adjacent to BART stations in the City. Provision for a Variety of Housing State Housing Element law specifies that jurisdictions identify adequate sites to be made available through appropriate zoning and development standards to encourage the development of various types of housing for all economic segments of the population. This includes single-family housing, multi-family housing, mobile homes, agricultural housing, emergency shelters, and transitional housing, among others. Table C-26 summarizes the various housing types permitted and conditionally permitted under the Zoning Ordinance. Appendix C-38 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Table C-26: Residential Uses by District Uses A R-1 R-2 RM C-O C-N C-1 C-2 M-P M-1 M-2 Single-family P P P P -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Residence Agricultural C/ZA -- Housing Second Unit -- P -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Mobile Home P P P -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- """ Mobile Home -- C/PC C/PC -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Parks low Multifamily Dwellings Community Care P P P P -- -- -- -- -- --Facility, Small Community Care C/PC C/PC C/PC -- -- C/PC C/PC C/PC C/PC Facility,Large Transitional _ C/PC C/PC Housing - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Emergency �?'*. -- -- -- -- C/PC C/PC C/PC C/PC C/PC C/PC C/PC Shelters Mixed Use* -- C/PC -- -- -- -- C/PC -- -- -- -- Source: City of Dublin Zoning Ordinance,2008. Notes: P—Permitted Use; C/ZA—Conditional Use Permit/Zoning Administrator; C/PC Conditional Use Permit Planning Commission;--Not Permitted; *"Residential Use Secondary to Commercial Use"is defined as a residence located above the ground floor commercial uses and is referred to herein as"Mixed Use." Single-Family Residence The term "Single-Family Residence" is defined in the Zoning Ordinance as a building designed for and/or occupied exclusively by one family. The definition also includes factory-built housing, modular housing, manufactured housing, mobile homes, and the rental of bedrooms within a single- family dwelling to no more than four borders. The term "family" is defined as one or more persons occupying a dwelling and living as a single, non-profit housekeeping unit, as distinguished from a group occupying a hotel, club, fraternity or sorority house. A family includes any servants and four or fewer boarders. Single-family residences are permitted in all residential zoning districts. Combined, the definitions of "single-family dwelling" and "family" may conflict with the requirements of the State Employee Housing Act and Lanterman Developmental Disabilities Services Act(described below). This potential constraint is further described in later sections. Agricultural Housing Agricultural housing is defined as dwellings and/or living quarters for farm laborers, or other types of dwellings determined to be substantially similar to the above by the Director of Community 49 Development. Agricultural Housing shall not be in addition to a Caretaker Residence or a Farm Mobile Home. Although only eight Dublin residents were employed in agricultural industry at the time of the 2000 Census, Agricultural Housing is permitted in the A district with approval of a Conditional Use Permit (CUP) by the Zoning Administrator. Conditions would be similar to those for other similar uses in the same zones and would not serve to constrain the development of such facilities. The Zoning Administrator must make the following findings established in Section 8.100.060 of the Zoning Ordinance prior to approval of a CUP for agricultural housing: Appendix C-39 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) • The proposed use and related structures is compatible with other land uses, transportation and service facilities in the vicinity. • It will not adversely affect the health or safety of persons residing or working in the vicinity, or be detrimental to the public health, safety and welfare. • It will not be injurious to property or improvements in the neighborhood. • There are adequate provisions for public access, water, sanitation, and public utilities and services to ensure that the proposed use and related structures would not be detrimental to the public health, safety, and welfare. • The subject site is physically suitable for the type, density and intensity of the use and related structures being proposed. • It will not be contrary to the specific intent clauses, development regulations, or performance standards established for the zoning district in which it is located. • It is consistent with the Dublin General Plan and with any applicable Specific Plans. However, pursuant to the State Employee Housing Act (Section 17000 of the Health and Safety Code), employee housing for agricultural workers consisting of no more than 36 beds in a group quarters or 12 units or spaces designed for use by a single family or household is permitted by right in an agricultural land use designation. Therefore, for properties that permit agricultural uses by right, a local jurisdiction may not treat employee housing that meets the above criteria any differently than an agricultural use. Furthermore, any employee housing providing accommodations for six or fewer employees shall be deemed a single-family structure with a residential land use designation, according to the Employee Housing Act. Employee housing for six or fewer persons is permitted where a single-family residence is permitted. No conditional or special use permit or variance is required. The City requires a CUP for all agricultural uses. Similarly, employee housing on agriculturally designated land requires the approval of a CUP. However, combined the definitions of a "single- family residence" and a "family" may potentially prevent six unrelated boarders to occupy a single- family residence as employee housing. The City will amend the Zoning Ordinance to address the provisions for agricultural housing, and to reconcile any potential conflicts between the "single- family residence"and"family"definitions and State law. Second Units A Second Unit is a residential unit with separate kitchen, sleeping, and bathroom facilities that is a part of, an extension to, or detached from, a detached single-family residence, and is subordinate to the principal residence. Second units may be an alternative source of affordable housing for lower income households and seniors. California law requires local jurisdictions to adopt ordinances that establish the conditions under which second dwelling units are permitted (Government Code, Section 65852.2). A jurisdiction cannot adopt an ordinance that precludes the development of second units unless findings are made acknowledging that allowing second units may limit the housing opportunities of the region and result in adverse impacts on public health, safety, and welfare. An amendment to the State's second unit law in September 2002 requires local governments to use a ministerial, rather than discretionary Appendix C-40 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) process for approving second units (i.e. second units otherwise compliant with local zoning standards can be approved without conditions or a public hearing). The City adopted a Second Unit Ordinance in 2003 to allow second dwelling units in the R-1 zoning district with a ministerial permit. The Community Development Department will issue a building permit for a second unit if all building permit submittal requirements are met, and if it conforms to the specific standards contained in Section 8.80.040 of the Zoning Ordinance, including but not limited to: • The lot is occupied by a legal existing, detached single-family unit. • The total floor area is not less than 275 square feet or more than 1,000 square feet. In no case shall a second unit exceed 35 percent of the total floor area of the existing single-family residence. • The second unit shall conform to the development standards of the R-1 district. • One off-street parking space is required but may be uncovered and in tandem with the parking of the principal unit. • The principal residence and the second unit combined shall not cover more than 60 percent of the lot. These development standards are typical and consistent with State law. Since adoption of the Ordinance in 2003, one second dwelling unit building permit has been issued and a second application is undergoing building plan check. Multi-Family Housing Multi-Family housing includes duplexes, apartments, condominiums, or townhomes. As of January 2008, multi-family housing units constituted approximately 41 percent of Dublin's housing stock. The Zoning Ordinance provides for multi-family developments by-right in the R-2 and R-M zoning districts. The R-2 zoning district is consistent with the Medium Density and Medium-High Density Residential land use designations of the General Plan which allow for 6.1 — 25.0 dwelling units per 0 acre. The R-M zoning district is consistent with the Medium, Medium-High and High Density 0 Residential land use designations of the General Plan which allow for 6.1 —25.0+ dwelling units per acre. The General Plan does not place an upper limit on High Density Residential land uses. Mobile Homes and Mobile Home Parks Mobile homes offer an affordable housing option to many lower and moderate income households. The City permits mobile homes constructed after September 15, 1971 and issued an insignia of approval by the California Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD) and permanently located on a permanent foundation system by right in the A, R-1, and R-2 districts. Mobile Home Parks require approval of a CUP by the Planning Commission within the R-1 and R-2 zoning districts. Conditions would be similar to those for other similar uses in the same zones and would not serve to constrain the development of such facilities. The required findings for approval of a CUP are stated in Section 8.100.060 of the Zoning Ordinance and are the same as described above for agricultural housing. Community Care Facilities Community care facilities are defined as residential facilities that provide 24-hour care for individuals, including the elderly, persons in an alcoholism or drug abuse recovery or treatment facility,persons in a facility for mentally disordered,handicapped persons or dependent and neglected children, persons in an intermediate care facility/developmentally disabled-habilitative, intermediate Appendix C-41 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) care facility/developmentally disabled-nursing, and congregate living health facilities. A community care facility may be located in any type of residence. Consistent with the State Lanterman Developmental Disabilities Services Act, small community care facilities serving six or fewer persons are permitted within all residential zones. Large community care facilities serving seven or more persons require approval of a Conditional Use Permit (CUP) by the Planning Commission within the R-1, R-2, R-M, C-1, C-2, M-P, and M-1 zoning districts. Potential conditions for approval may include hours of operation, security, loading requirements, and management. Conditions would be similar to those for other similar uses in the same zones and would not serve to constrain the development of such facilities. The required findings for approval of a CUP are stated in Section 8.100.060 of the Zoning Ordinance and are the same as described above for agricultural housing. As of October 2008, a number of community care facilities are operating in the City of Dublin:13 • Four adult residential facilities with a total capacity of 22 beds; • Three group homes for children with a total capacity of 18 beds; and • Fourteen residential care facilities for the elderly with a total capacity of 96 beds. However, the City's definition of a "single-family residence" is a building designed for and/or occupied exclusively by one family. The term "family" limits the number of boarders to no more than four. Together, these definitions may result in a potential conflict with the Lanterman Developmental Disabilities Services Act. The City's Zoning Ordinance will be amended to resolve any potential conflicts. Transitional Housing Transitional Housing units or facilities provide a residence for homeless individuals or families for an extended period of time, usually six months or longer, which also offers other social services and counseling to assist residents in achieving self-sufficiency. Transitional Housing may be accessory to a public or civic type use. No known transitional housing units are currently located within the City. The City amended the Zoning Ordinance in 2004 to facilitate and encourage the provision of transitional housing by conditionally permitting the use in the R-2 and R-M zoning districts. The Conditional Use Permit is subject to the approval of the Planning Commission and specific criteria established in Section 8.20.040(B) of the Dublin Municipal Code. The criteria are as follows: • The transitional housing has high accessibility to residents and low profile/visibility to others. • The hours of operation for the transitional housing will not result in negative impacts on other uses. • The generation of external lighting and noise is kept to a minimum for the location. • The transitional housing is located with access to transportation, supportive services, and commercial services to meet daily needs of residents. • The transitional housing is designed to provide adequate security measures to protect users and the surrounding neighborhood. • The transitional housing design and location reflects the needs of the clients being served. • The transitional housing provides transportation of individuals to and from proposed facilities. 13 State Department of Social Services,Licensing Division.hap:/w�%,w.ccldxa.goy%docs,ccld search%ccld search aspx. Appendix C-42 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) • The transitional housing is in compliance with County and State health and safety requirements for food, medical and other supportive services provided on-site. • The transitional housing operation and management is in and maintains in good standing all County and/or State licenses, if required by these agencies for the owner(s), operator(s), and/or staff of the proposed facility. • The transitional housing is developed in accordance with the Development Regulations in Chapter 8.36 for the Zoning District and all applicable regulations and standards of the City of Dublin Zoning Ordinance. California Health and Safety Code (Section 50675.2) defines "transitional housing" and "transitional housing development" as buildings configured as rental housing developments, but operated under program requirements that call for the termination of assistance and recirculation of the assisted unit to another eligible program recipient at some predetermined future point in time, which shall be no less than six months. This definition of transitional housing does not encompass all transitional housing facilities regulated by the City of Dublin, particularly those that operate similar to group quarters and charge fees rather than rents. The Zoning Ordinance will be amended to clarify the permitting requirements for transitional housing facilities. For transitional housing that operates as group housing, the City's permitting requirements for community care facilities apply, consistent with the Lanterman Developmental Disabilities Services Act. For transitional housing that is regular multi-family housing, such housing will be permitted where multi-family housing is otherwise permitted. Emergency Shelters The term "Emergency Shelter" means a housing facility maintained to provide a temporary, short- term residence for homeless individuals or families offering limited supplemental services for the homeless population year-round, provided no facility is used for more than a month at a time by any individual or family. An Emergency Shelter may be accessory to a public or civic type use. 0 Emergency Shelters are conditionally permitted in the C-O, C-N, C-1, C-2, M-P, M-1, and M-2 # zoning districts, and subject to the approval of the Planning Commission. Applicable development and performance standards are set forth in Section 8.28.070(B) and are as follows: • The emergency shelter has high accessibility to residents and low profile/visibility to others. • The hours of operation for the emergency shelter will not result in negative impacts on other uses. . 0 The generation of external lighting and noise is kept to a minimum for the location. • The emergency shelter is located with access to transportation, supportive services, and commercial services to meet daily needs of residents. • The emergency shelter is designed to provide adequate security measures to protect users and the surrounding neighborhood. • The emergency shelter design and location reflects the needs of the clients being served. • The emergency shelter provides transportation of individuals to and from proposed facilities. • The emergency shelter is in compliance with County and State health and safety requirements for food,medical and other supportive services provided on-site. • The emergency shelter operation and management is in and maintains in good standing all County and/or State licenses, if required by these agencies for the owner(s), operator(s), and/or staff of the proposed facility. • The emergency shelter is developed in accordance with the Development Regulations in Chapter 8.36 for the Zoning District and all applicable regulations and standards of the City of Dublin Zoning Ordinance. Appendix C-43 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) The Zoning Ordinance will be amended to permit emergency shelters with a ministerial permit within the M-1 zoning district pursuant to SB 2 enacted in 2007. The M-1 zoning district covers approximately 180 acres on 67 parcels in Dublin and therefore adequate capacity exists to accommodate unsheltered homeless persons and at least one year-round emergency shelter. The Zoning Ordinance will also be revised to replace the development and performance standards in Section 8.28.070(B) with the criteria allowed by SB 2. These include: • The maximum number of beds/persons permitted to be served nightly; • Off-street parking based on demonstrated need, but not to exceed parking requirements for other residential or commercial uses in the same zone; • The size/location of exterior and interior onsite waiting and client intake areas; • The provision of onsite management; • The proximity of other emergency shelters, provided that emergency shelters are not required to be more than 300 feet apart; • The length of stay; • Lighting; and • Security during hours that the emergency shelter is in operation. Mixed Use Residential uses located above the ground floor of a commercial use are conditionally permitted in the R-1 and C-1 zoning districts and require approval of a Conditional Use Permit(CUP)by the Planning Commission. The City approved a mixed-use project in 2004 including 150,000 square feet of office space and 308 multi-family apartment units within the West Dublin BART Specific Plan Area. Under the City's Inclusionary Zoning Regulations, the project is required to provide up to 39 affordable units. The City also approved the 233-unit multi-family Tralee Village mixed-use development in 2004, which includes two mixed use buildings with 33,500 square feet of ground floor commercial uses and 130 residential units above; the project will provide 29 affordable units, of which nine units will be affordable to very low income households, six units will be for low-income households, and 14 units will be for moderate-income households. In 2005 the City approved a mixed use project at the Dublin Transit Center adjacent to the existing Dublin/Pleasanton BART Station which includes approximately 15,000 square feet of ground floor retail uses with 304 apartments above; 10 percent of the units are set aside for moderate income households. In 2006, the City approved a second mixed use project at the Dublin Transit Center which includes approximately 15,000 square feet of ground floor retail uses with 300 for sale condominiums above. A third project at the Dublin Transit Center is currently in Planning review and includes up to 25,000 square feet of ground floor retail and 405 apartments; 10 percent of the units will be set aside for moderate income households. Single Room Occupancy Units (SROs) SRO units are one-room units intended for occupancy by a single individual. It is distinct from a studio or efficiency unit, in that a studio is a one-room unit that must contain a kitchen and bathroom. Although SRO units are not required to have a kitchen or bathroom, many SROs have one or the other. Currently, the Zoning Ordinance does not expressly address SROs. The Zoning Ordinance will be amended to facilitate and encourage the provision of SROs consistent with SB 2 enacted in 2007. SROs will be conditionally permitted in the C-2 district. Criteria that would be used to review CUP applications for SROs pertain to performance standards and will not be specific to the proposed use. Appendix C-44 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Potential conditions for approval of these facilities may include hours of operation, security, loading requirements, and management. Conditions would be similar to those for other similar uses in the same zones and would not serve to constrain the development of such facilities. The required findings for approval of a CUP are stated in Section 8.100.060 of the Zoning Ordinance and will be the same as described above for agricultural housing. Supportive Housing California Health and Safety Code (Section 50675.2) defines "supportive housing" as housing with no limit on length of stay, that is occupied by the low-income adults with disabilities, and that is linked to onsite or offsite services that assist the supportive housing resident in retaining the housing, Vw improving his or her health status, and maximizing his or her ability to live and, when possible, work in the community. Currently, the Zoning Ordinance does not address supportive housing. To facilitate and encourage the provision of supportive housing in Dublin, the Zoning Ordinance will be amended to provide for supportive housing. For supportive housing that operates as group housing, the City's permitting requirements for community care facilities apply, consistent with the Lanterman Developmental Disabilities Services Act. For supportive housing that is regular multi-family housing, such housing i4w will be permitted where multi-family housing is otherwise permitted. _ Site Improvements, Exactions, and Development Fees low Site Improvements For large subdivisions,the City requires the construction of reasonable on- and off-site improvements pursuant to the Subdivision Map Act. The minimum improvements required of the developer include: • Grading and improvement of public and private streets including surfacing, curbs, gutters, cross gutters, sidewalks, ornamental street lighting, street name signs and necessary barricades and safety devices; • Storm drainage and flood control facilities within and outside of when necessary the subdivision sufficient to carry storm runoff both tributary to and originating within the subdivision; • Debris basins and erosion and siltation control measures to control erosion and siltation; • A sewage system that meets public sewer system standards; • A water distribution system providing an adequate supply of potable water to each lot and fire hydrant within the subdivision; • Fire hydrants and connections shall be of the type and at locations specified by the fire marshal; and • Public utility distribution facilities including gas, electric, telephone and cable television necessary to serve each lot in the subdivision. The City also requires dedication of land intended for public use. Dedicated streets, easements, rights-of-way, etc., must be designed, developed, and improved according to City of Dublin Public Works standards. Street design criteria are summarized in Table C-27. Appendix C-45 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Table C-27: Street Design Criteria Right of Curb to Minimum Service and Design Criteria Way urb Curve Landscape y Radius Easement Arterials 4-lane 104' 80' 1,200' 10'/side 6-lane 128' 104' 1,200' 10'/side 8-lane 152' 128' 1,200' 10'/side Collectors Class I 92' 76' 1,100' 10'/side Class II 68' 52' 450' 10'/side Residential 56' 40' 450' S'/side Residential 46' 36' 200' 1 S'/side Cul-de-Sacs 46' 36' 200[ 5'/side Source: City of Dublin,2008. Residential development projects with more than 20 residential units must comply with the City's Public Art Program pursuant to Chapter 8.58 of the Zoning Ordinance. Under the Program, developers are required to acquire and install a public art project on or in the vicinity of the development site, or make a monetary contribution in-lieu. The value of the public art project or in-lieu monetary contribution shall equal or exceed 0.5 percent of the development project's building valuation(excluding land). The purpose of the City's Public Art Program is, in part, to promote the public interest and general welfare through the acquisition and installation of public art works. Participation in the program by residential projects with more than 20 units is not an undue constraint on housing development in the City because: 1) the requirement applies to single-family homes, townhomes, condominiums, and apartments alike; and 2) housing projects that set-aside 100 percent of units for lower income households are exempt from the public art requirement. The City often requires dedication of bicycle paths for the use and safety of residents of large residential subdivisions. Schools, fire stations, libraries, or other public facilities may also be required. Park dedication or fee in-lieu of dedication required according to the standard of five acres per one thousand persons, consistent with the Quimby Act. This ratio amounts to 740.5 square feet per single-family unit, 675.2 square feet per multi-family unit, and 370.3 square feet per mobile home unit proposed. Specific standards for design and improvements of subdivisions must be in accordance with the applicable sections of the Zoning Ordinance, the General Plan, the Subdivision Ordinance, any specific plans adopted by the City, and requirements established by the City Engineer. Improvement and dedication requirements are important to maintaining the quality of life in Dublin and to ensuring public health and safety. These standards are typical in the region. Development Fees and Exactions In addition to improvements and dedication of public land, land developers are subject to a variety of fees and exactions to cover the cost of processing permits and providing necessary services and facilities. In general,these fees can be a constraint on housing development and compromise project feasibility because the additional cost borne by developers contributes to overall increased housing unit cost. However, the fees are necessary to maintain adequate planning services and other public services and facilities in the City. The City's Planning Division fee schedule is summarized in Table C-28 and current development impact fees are provided in Table C-29. Reduced, waived, or reimbursed fees are possible incentives Appendix C-46 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) that can be requested under the City's Density Bonus Ordinance. The City has demonstrated a commitment to providing concessions that facilitate the construction of affordable housing by waiving future commercial linkage fees on commercially-zoned property within the Dublin Ranch community as an incentive for a developer to provide additional affordable units as part of the Oak Groves and Pine Groves/Cedar Groves apartment communities. A total of 626 rental units have been constructed within the Oak Groves and Pine Groves/Cedar Groves communities of which 535 units are affordable to very low, low and moderate income households, for both families and seniors. Table C-28: Planning Division Fee Schedule AW Services Performed Fee Typical De osit* Residential CUP $1,939 N/A Time Extension Request(PC) $646 N/A Time Extension Request(Admin) $129 N/A Zoning Clearance $50 N/A Residential Variance $1,939 N/A Site Development Review $140+T&M Varies Planned Development T&M $10,000 Tentative Subdivision Map T&M $10,000 Tentative Parcel Map T&M $10,000 CEQA Initial Study and Negative Declaration T&M $25,000+ Oft CEQA Initial Study and Mitigated Negative Declaration T&M $25,000+ "` CEQA Initial Study and Environmental Impact Report T&M $50,000+ CEQA Categorical/Statutory Exemption $259 N/A General Plan Amendment T&M $10,000 Specific Plan Amendment T&M $10,000 Rezone T&M $10,000 Condominium Conversion T&M $15,000 Source:City of Dublin,2008. Note: *Deposits are based on the City Planner's estimate of hours necessary to complete review of the project. Additional deposits may be required at a later date. Any remaining funds are refunded after the completion of the project. Appendix C-47 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) Table C-29: Development Impact Fees Fee Type Amount Fee Type Amount Water System Connection Fee Freeway Interchange Reimbursement Traffic Impact Fees Single Family $6,579/du Low/Medium Density10 $318.44/du Multi-Family Varies' Medium/High Density" $222.91/du Water Meter Assembly Fee High Density 12 $191.06/du Single Family $340/du Tri-Valley Transportation Development Fee Multi-Family Varies' Attached Units $1,295/du Regional Sewer Connection Fee Detached Units $2,036/du Single Family $13,000/du Downtown Traffic Impact Fee Multi-Family $9,750/du2 Low/MediumDensity10 $1,842 Local Sewer Connection Fee Medium/High Density" $1,290 Single Family $1,475 du High Density 12 $1,104 Multi-Family $1,107/due Noise Mitigation Fee(East Dublin Only) Public Facilities Fee Single-Family/ $4.74/du Medium Density Single Family $16,814/du3 Medium High Density $3.32/du Multi-Family $10,509/duo High Density $2.85/du School Impact Fees Eastern Dublin Traffic Impact Fees Citywide $7.50/sf Low/Medium Density10 $5,904 to$9,654/du Low Density5 $12,693/du Medium/High Density" $4,133 to$6,759/du Medium Density $6,860/du High Density12 $3,542 to$5,793/du Medium High Density' $3,881/du Drainage Fee High Densitys $3,206/du All Units $0.731/sf13 Fire Impact Fee Single-Family $870/du Multi-Family $544/du Source:City of Dublin,January 1,2008. Notes: 'Varies,depending on size of the water meter. RAttached units at>25 units per acre. 2Varies from condos and apartments. VVaries by category and location inside or outside of 3$23,763 in Eastern Dublin. Transit Center Area. 4$14,851 in Eastern Dublin. 10<14 units per acre. 5Single family detached units on lots>4,000sf. 1114 to 25 units per acre. 6Single family detached units on lots<4,000sf. 2>25 units per acre. Attached units at 14-25 units per acre. 13 Per square-foot of impervious surface. For a typical single-family detached dwelling, total impact fees average to about $60,700 per unit and total impact fees for multi-family housing average to about $35,500 per unit. These figures include school, water, and sewer fees that are imposed by outside agencies over which the City has no control. The City's portion of the impact fees is about $33,000 for a single-family unit and $11,000 for a multi-family unit. According to the Building Official, the valuation of a typical single-family unit is $371,467 and that of a typical multi-family unit is $239,048. Overall, development impact fees represent slightly more than 16 percent of the development costs of a single-family unit, excluding land costs. For a typical Appendix C-48 Ow City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) multi-family unit, development impact fees represent less than 15 percent of the development costs, excluding land costs. Land cost is a significant component of the overall development costs. When land costs are factored into the equation, development impact fees represent an even smaller portion of the total development costs. Nevertheless, the City recognizes the impact of fees on affordable housing development. Therefore, the City offers deferment or amortization of fees for senior housing and housing for lower income households. In addition to deferment or amortization of fees, and as noted above, the City has demonstrated a commitment to providing concessions that facilitate the construction of affordable housing by waiving commercial linkage fees on commercially-zoned property within the Dublin Ranch community in order to facilitate the development of affordable housing within the Oak Groves and Pine Groves/Cedar Groves apartment communities. Inclusionary Housing The City adopted an Inclusionary Housing Ordinance in 2002. Under the Regulations, all new residential development projects of 20 units or more designed and intended for permanent occupancy must construct 12.5 percent of the total number of dwelling units within the development as affordable units. Of the affordable rental units, 30 percent must be set aside for very low income households, 20 percent for low income households, and 50 percent for moderate income households; of the owner occupied affordable units, 40 percent must be set aside for low income households and 60 percent for moderate income households. (The City amended the Ordinance in December 2008 to remove the requirement of very low income units for for-sale housing to recognize that requirement's cost impact on feasibility.) Z The Ordinance provides for five exceptions to the 12.5 percent affordability requirement (Section 8.68.040): • Payment of in-lieu fees; • Off-site projects; • Land dedication; • Credit transfers; and • Waiver of requirements. Pursuant to the Ordinance, developers can pay as an in-lieu fee up to five percent of the inclusionary housing requirement, with the remaining 7.5 percent of the requirement as must-build units. Any request for payment of in-lieu fee above the five percent requires City Council approval. The amount of in-lieu fee is adjusted annually based on real estate indicators. Therefore,the fee is sensitive to the fluctuation in market conditions. Currently, the in-lieu fee is set at $96,000 per affordable unit required. The fee has remained fairly level during the last two years. The last exception, waiver of requirements, gives the City Council flexibility to make exceptions to the Ordinance. Also, Section 8.68.070 provides incentives to make the construction of affordable units more feasible, including: • Fee Deferral—processing and impact fees • Design Modifications- - Reduced lot size - Reduced setback requirements - Reduced open space requirements - Reduced landscaping requirements - Reduced interior or exterior amenities Appendix C-49 City of Dublin Housing Element (2009-2014) - Reduction in parking requirements - Height restriction waivers For example, the Positano project is a single-family detached residential product that is subject to the Inclusionary Ordinance. In order to assist the developer in making the provision of affordable housing more feasible, the City Council granted the developer's request that a portion of the affordable units be provided off-site. The City Council also granted design modifications to make the construction of the affordable units more feasible. These included allowing 21 very low income studio units and 13 very low and 7 low income one-bedroom units as secondary units to the single- family dwellings. Since adoption of the Inclusionary Housing Ordinance in 2002, the City has approved more than 8,000 housing units by private developers (see Table C-3 land Table C-32). Given the flexibility and incentives offered by the City's Inclusionary Housing program, and as demonstrated by the significant housing development entitled after the adoption of the Inclusionary Housing Ordinance, the City's affordable housing requirements are not constraining residential development. Furthermore, the City's High Density Residential zone offers a density of 25.1+units per acre. Since there is no maximum density established, and the City offers flexibility through its PD process, a project can be tailored to ensure feasibility. Development Permit Procedures Development review and permit procedures are necessary steps to ensure that residential construction proceeds in an orderly manner. The following discussion outlines the level of review required for various permits and timelines associated with those reviews. The timelines provided are estimates; actual processing time may vary due to the volume of applications and the size and complexity of the projects. Single-Family All new single family dwellings are subject to Site Development Review approval by either the Director of Community Development or the Planning Commission. The Building and Safety Division of the Community Development Department also reviews building permit applications for conformity to adopted building codes. Approval of a building permit for a single-family dwelling is ministerial and processing time is highly dependent on the quality of the initial submittal. Multi-Family Housing All multi-family housing projects are subject to Site Development Review by the Planning Commission. If the multi-family housing is proposed as a condominium, the approval process also includes a subdivision map. The tentative subdivision map and Site Development Review are processed concurrently. The application procedure is established in Chapter 8.104 of the Zoning Ordinance. The purpose of the review is to: A. To preserve the architectural character and scale of neighborhoods and the community. B. To ensure that development is well designed in relation to surrounding properties, including that the design, character, height, fagade length, roof forms, colors, materials, roof mounted equipment and architectural details of a proposed structure or remodeled structure are compatible with the design, character, height, fagade length, roof form, colors, materials and architectural details of structures in the vicinity. Appendix C-50 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) C. To ensure that projects enhance their sites and are harmonious with high standards of improvements in the surrounding area. D. To enhance the residential and business property values within the City. E. To ensure compliance with development regulations and the requirements of zoning districts, including but not limited to, setbacks, height, parking, landscaping, public art, fences, accessory structures and signage. F. To ensure that each project is designed to comply with the intent and purpose of the zoning district in which it is located and with the General Plan and applicable Specific Plan. G. To promote the health, safety and general welfare. H. To ensure that projects provide adequate circulation for automobiles as well as pedestrians and bicyclists to create a pedestrian friendly environment. The following findings must be made prior to the approval of a Site Development Review application: A. The proposal is consistent with the purposes of this Chapter, with the General Plan and with any applicable Specific Plans and design guidelines. B. The proposal is consistent with the provisions of Title 8,Zoning Ordinance. C. The design of the project is appropriate to the City, the vicinity, surrounding properties and the lot in which the project is proposed. D. The subject site is physically suitable for the type and intensity of the approved development. E. Impacts to existing slopes and topographic features are addressed. F. Architectural considerations including the character, scale and quality of the design, site layout, the architectural relationship with the site and other buildings, screening of unsightly uses, lighting, building materials and colors and similar elements result in a project that is harmonious with its surroundings and compatible with other development in the vicinity. 0 G. Landscape considerations, including the location, type, size, color, texture and coverage of plant materials, and similar elements have been incorporated into the project to ensure visual relief, adequate screening and an attractive environment for the public. H. The site has been adequately designed to ensure proper circulation for bicyclists, pedestrians and automobiles. 0 More than 4,083 multi-family units at 12 developments have been subject to the Site Development 0 Review requirement and approved by the Planning Commission and no applications for multi-family 0 units have been denied since 2003. As the Site Development Review is required for residential and non-residential uses alike and the findings are the same for all uses subject to the requirement, the Site Development Review process is not a constraint on the provision of multi-family housing in Dublin. Appendix C-51 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Processing Timeframes Processing time frames for single-family and multi-family subdivisions vary depending on a number of factors, including size, location, environmental constraints, and developer responsiveness. Much of the newer residential development (single-family and multi-family) is located within the Eastern Dublin Specific Plan Area and is governed by the Eastern Dublin Specific Plan and associated Environmental Impact Report. The Specific Plan establishes land use designations for all property within the Specific Plan area and contains development standards such as dwelling units per acre and floor area ratio. The Specific Plan also includes design guidelines and resource management. These standards and guidelines coupled with the Planned Development Zoning process provide the developer with a framework for development as well as flexibility to design a project without being limited by traditional setbacks and lot coverage restrictions. Planned Development Zoning is processed concurrently with site plan review and therefore does not increase the processing timeline. Additionally, the certification of an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) for the Specific Plan area reduces the processing timelines for development projects that are consistent with the Specific Plan. For example, all of the high-density residential projects at the Dublin Transit Center as well as the Dublin Ranch communities of Oak Groves and Pine Groves/Cedar Groves were deemed categorically exempt from further environmental review because they were consistent with the Specific Plan. The one factor that contributes to increased processing timelines is the lack of responsiveness by developers to public agency comments. This results in additional review time that increases the processing timeline and costs associated with the project. However, since adoption of the Eastern Dublin Specific Plan and Planned Development Zoning in 1994 the City has been able to work successfully with the development community resulting in the approval of over 11,000 residential units. Building Codes and Enforcement The City of Dublin currently uses the following Codes: 2006 Edition of the International Building Code (2007 CA Building Code); 2006 Edition of the International Fire Code (2007 CA Fire Code); 2006 Edition of the Uniform Mechanical Code (2007 CA Mechanical Code); 2006 Edition of the Uniform Plumbing Code (2007 CA Plumbing Code); 2005 Edition of the National Electrical Code (2007 CA Electrical Code); and 1997 Uniform Housing Code. The Planning and Building Divisions of the Community Development Department carry out code enforcement and inspection activities as a means to preserve and maintain the livability and quality of neighborhoods. City staff investigates violations of property maintenance standards as defined in the Municipal Code as well as other complaints. When violations are identified or cited, staff encourages property owners to seek assistance through available housing rehabilitation programs. Although current building codes may be a barrier to the rehabilitation of older properties that are required to be brought up to current code standards, the intent of the codes is to provide structurally sound, safe, and energy-efficient housing. The City of Dublin actively pursues reported code violations in the City. For the five-year period from January 2003 to December 2007, Code Enforcement officials conducted 1,703 residential inspections. Of these cases, eight involved building-related violations. When code violations are unable to be resolved through voluntary compliance or through the nuisance abatement procedure, the City refers such cases to the City Attorney for prosecution. The City Attorney's office may seek injunctions, receivership and civil lawsuits to achieve compliance with City codes. During the 2003 to 2007 period, no residential building-related cases were referred to the City Attorney's office. The City will continue to enforce property maintenance standards and abate substandard structures through Code Enforcement. Appendix C-52 rw City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Housing for Persons with Disabilities Both the federal Fair Housing Amendment Act (FHAA) and the California Fair Employment and Housing Act direct local governments to make reasonable accommodations (i.e. modifications or exceptions) in their zoning laws and other land use regulations when such accommodations may be necessary to afford disabled persons an equal opportunity to use and enjoy a dwelling. The City assessed its zoning ordinance, permitting procedures, development standards, and building codes to identify potential constraints for housing for persons with disabilities. The City's policies and regulations regarding housing for persons with disabilities are described below. Zoning and Land Use Under State Lanterman Developmental Disabilities Services Act (aka Lanterman Act), small community care facilities for six or fewer persons must be treated as regular residential uses and be permitted by right in all residential districts; Dublin is compliant with the Lanterman Act. Large community care facilities for more than six persons are conditionally permitted within the R-1, R-2, R-M, C-1, C-2, M-P, and M-1 zoning districts. Potential conditions for approval may include hours of operation, security, loading requirements, and management. Conditions would be similar to those for other similar uses in the same zones and would not serve to unduly constrain the development of residential care facilities for more than six persons. The City has not adopted a spacing requirement for community care facilities. The Land Use Element and Zoning Ordinance provide for the development of multi-family housing in the R-2 and R-M zoning districts. Regular multi-family housing for persons with special needs, such as apartments for seniors and the disabled are considered regular residential uses permitted by right in these zones. The Zoning Ordinance has a provision to allow exceptions to development standards for accessory structures (Section 8.40.020.F.2.a). Similarly, the Development Regulations section of the Zoning Ordinance has provisions that allow for encroachments into required setbacks (Section 8.36.050.B.2 & 3). These exceptions/encroachments are allowed citywide and could accommodate a wide range of needs for persons with disabilities. However, circumstances may arise when it would be reasonable to accommodate requests from persons with disabilities to waive a setback requirement or another standard of the Zoning Ordinance to ensure that homes are accessible for the mobility impaired. Whether a particular modification is reasonable depends on the circumstances, and must be decided on a case-by-case basis. The City will adopt a formal ministerial process for persons with disabilities to seek relief from the strict or literal application of development standards to enable them to enjoy their dwellings like other residents in Dublin. The City has not established any special distance requirements for the housing for persons with disabilities. Therefore, the State distance standard of 300 feet applies. In order to facilitate housing for persons with disabilities, the City offers fee deferment or amortization for senior housing (which often includes accessible units and is occupied by many seniors with disabilities.) Building Codes The City enforces Title 24 of the California Code of Regulations that regulates the access and adaptability of buildings to accommodate persons with disabilities. In 2007, the City adopted a Universal Design Ordinance that requires new single-family home developers to install base Universal Design features in all single-family developments of 20 or more homes. The Universal Design Ordinance is substantially the same as the Model Universal Design Local Ordinance adopted by the California Department of Housing and Community Development. The City will continue to enforce the provisions of this ordinance. Appendix C-53 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Government Code Section 12955.1 requires that 10 percent of the total dwelling units in multi-family buildings without elevators consisting of three or more rental units or four or more condominium units be subject to the following building standards for persons with disabilities: • The primary entry to the dwelling unit shall be on an accessible route unless exempted by site impracticality tests. • At least one powder room or bathroom shall be located on the primary entry level served by an accessible route. • All rooms or spaces located on the primary entry level shall be served by an accessible route. Rooms and spaces located on the primary entry level and subject to this chapter may include but are not limited to kitchens, powder rooms, bathrooms, living rooms, bedrooms, or hallways. • Common use areas shall be accessible. • If common tenant parking is provided, accessible parking spaces is required. No unique Building Code restrictions are in place that would constrain the development of housing for persons with disabilities. Compliance with provisions of the City's Municipal Code, California Code of Regulations, California Building Standards Code, and federal Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is assessed and enforced by the Building and Safety Division of the Community Development Department as a part of the building permit submittal. Definition of Family Local governments may restrict access to housing for households failing to qualify as a "family" by the definition specified in the Zoning Ordinance. Specifically, a restrictive definition of"family"that limits the number of and differentiates between related and unrelated individuals living together may impermissibly limit the development and siting of group homes for persons with disabilities but not for housing families that are similarly sized or situated.14 Dublin's Zoning Ordinance defines a "family" as one or more persons occupying a dwelling and living as a single, non-profit housekeeping unit, as distinguished from a group occupying a hotel, club, fraternity or sorority house. A family includes any servants and four or fewer boarders. Because six or fewer disabled could be considered "boarders" of a licensed community care facility, the City's current definition of family can be a constraint on housing for persons with disabilities. The City will revise its definition eliminate references to the number of individuals that can comprise a single housekeeping unit. Conclusion The City will update the Zoning Ordinance to redefine "family" and provide a formal process for providing reasonable accommodation to persons with disabilities. With these revisions, no policy or regulation of the City of Dublin serves to constrain housing for persons with disabilities. 14 California court cases (City of Santa Barbara v. Adamson, 1980 and City of Chula Vista v. Pagard, 1981, etc.) have ruled an ordinance as invalid if it defines a "family" as (a) an individual; (b) two or more persons related by blood, marriage,or adoption;or(c)a group of not more than a specific number of unrelated persons as a single housekeeping unit. These cases have explained that defining a family in a manner that distinguishes between blood-related and non- blood related individuals does not serve any legitimate or useful objective or purpose recognized under the zoning and land use planning powers of a municipality,and therefore violates rights of privacy under the California Constitution. Appendix C-54 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) C. Public Policy Constraints State and Federal requirements may act as a barrier to the development or rehabilitation of housing, and affordable housing in particular. These include State prevailing wage requirements, Article 34 of the State Constitution and environmental review requirements. State Prevailing Wage Requirements The State Department of Industrial Relations (DIR) expanded the kinds of projects that require the payment of prevailing wages. Labor Code Section 1720, which applies prevailing wage rates to public works of over $1,000, now defines public works to mean construction, alteration, installation, demolition, or repair work done under contract and paid for in whole or in part out of public funds. For example, public transfer of an asset for less than fair market value, such as a land write-down, would now be construed to be paid for, in part, out of public funds and trigger prevailing wage requirements. While the cost differential in prevailing and standard wages varies based on the skill level of the occupation,prevailing wages tend to add to the overall cost of development. In the case of affordable IAW housing projects, prevailing wage requirements could effectively reduce the number of affordable Ow units that can be achieved with public subsidies. The following types of projects are exempt from the prevailing wage requirement: • Residential projects financed through issuance of bonds that receive an allocation through the State; or • Single-family projects financed through issuance of qualified mortgage revenue bonds or mortgage credit certificates. Article 34 of the California Constitution Article 34 of the State Constitution requires a majority vote of the electorate to approve the development, construction, or acquisition by a public body of any "low rent housing project" within that jurisdiction. In other words, for any projects to be built and/or operated by a public agency where at least 50 percent of the occupants are low income and rents are restricted to affordable levels, the jurisdiction must seek voter approval known as "Article 34 authority" to authorize that number of units. Dublin has not sought voter approval to grant"Article 34 authority." In the past,Article 34 may have prevented certain projects from being built. In practice, most public agencies have learned how to structure projects to avoid triggering Article 34, such as limiting public assistance to 49 percent of the units in the project. Furthermore, the State legislature has enacted Sections 37001, 37001.3, and 37001.5 of the Health and Safety Code to clarify ambiguities relating to the scope of the applicability of Article 34. Although Dublin does not have Article 34 authority, the City does not view this as a significant constraint to the development of affordable housing since the City does not typically function as a developer. Appendix C-55 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Environmental Protection State and federal regulations require environmental review of proposed discretionary projects (e.g., subdivision maps, development review permits, etc.). Costs resulting from the environmental review process are also added to the cost of housing and are passed on to the consumer to the extent that the market can bear. These costs include fees charged by local government and private consultants needed to complete the environmental analysis, and from delays caused by the mandated public review periods. However, the presence of these regulations helps preserve the environment and ensure environmental safety to Dublin residents. D. Utility and Public Service Constraints The provision of utilities such as water and sewer as well as public services including police, fire, and schools is costly to local governments and special districts providing municipal services. New development must pay for much of these costs thereby increasing the overall cost of housing. This section provides an overview of potential utility and public service constraints in Dublin. Water Supply and Distribution Dublin's water is distributed by Dublin San Ramon Services District (DSRSD), which purchases water from Zone 7 of the Alameda County Flood Control and Water Conservation District, which, in turn, imports it from three sources: State water project, local runoff from the Arroyo Del Valle watershed(stored in Lake Del Valle) and from natural recharge of the groundwater basin. A recent United States District Court decision mandated a 35 percent reduction in pumping from the Sacramento Delta to protect the endangered Delta Smelt. As a result, it is anticipated that demand for water will exceed supplies by 2014. Alternative measures to conserve existing and secure additional water supply will be necessary. Senate Bill 1087 (enacted 2006) requires that water providers develop written policies that grant priority to proposed development that includes housing affordable to lower-income households. The legislation also prohibits water providers from denying or conditioning the approval of development that includes housing affordable to lower income households, unless specific written findings are made. The City will provide a copy of the adopted 2009-2014 Housing Element to DSRSD within 30 days of adoption. The City will also continue to coordinate with the DSRSD to ensure affordable housing developments receive priority water service provision. Sewage Collection and Treatment As of 2005, DSRSD had completed a sewage treatment plan expansion to treat 17.0 mgd, with a planned future expansion to 20.8 mgd as treatment for buildout flows. Disposal of treated wastewater is provided by the Livermore-Amador Valley Water Management Agency (LAVWMA) export pipeline expansion project completed in 2005. The project improved a 16-mile export pipeline that discharges treated sewage to the East Bay Dischargers Authority and on to the Bay. Senate Bill 1087 described above also mandates priority sewage collection and treatment service to housing developments providing units affordable to lower income households. The City will continue to coordinate with DSRSD to ensure priority service provision to affordable housing developments. Appendix C-56 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Fire Protection The Alameda County Fire Department (ACFD) serves as the fire department for the City of Dublin and provides all fire prevention, fire protection and First Responder Emergency Medical Services within the City. The ACFD has identified the need to modernize its fleet and make staffing adjustments to adequately serve future development while maintaining current service levels to existing development. Schools The Dublin Unified School District (DUSD) serves approximately 5,500 students at five elementary Z schools, two middle schools, a comprehensive high school, and a small continuation high school. Large subdivisions in the Extended Planning Areas are required to dedicate school sites according to the State's Board of Education guidelines and acceptable to the Dublin Unified School District. Other impacts to the public school system are offset through the payment of school district fees at the time of building permit issuance pursuant to SB 50 enacted in 1998. E. Environmental Constraints A community's environmental setting affects the feasibility and cost of developing housing. Environmental issues range from the conservation of biological resources to the suitability of land for development due to potential exposure to seismic, flooding, wildfire and other hazards. This section summarizes these potential constraints in Dublin. (Refer to the Conservation Element, Seismic Safety and Safety Element, and the Schools, Public Lands, and Utilities Element of the General Plan for more detailed analyses and mitigating policies that address environmental issues or hazards within the Dublin planning area.) Biological Resources The Primary Planning Area is in the Livermore drainage unit of the Alameda Creek watershed. Of the many streams in this drainage area, one flows through the City -- Alamo Creek. The creek runs along the eastern side of Dublin near Dougherty Road. A major portion of the creek is channelized, and remaining sections have mostly been improved as a result of subdivision developments. The Extended Planning Area lies within other watersheds. Several significant streams .traverse the Extended Planning Area — Hollis Canyon and Martin Canyon Creeks in the western hills and Tassajara and Cottonwood Creeks in eastern Dublin. Extensive areas of riparian vegetation are located along stream courses in the Western Extended Planning Area. This riparian woodland has importance to wildlife in the area. Considerable damage to riparian areas has resulted from intensive animal grazing. New development is required to provide open stream corridors of adequate width to protect riparian vegetation. Where construction requires creekbank alteration, revegetation with native riparian vegetation is required. Special consideration is given to the protection or enhancement of riparian woodland areas of the Western Extended Planning Area biological resources due to the unique habitat value of these biological resources. Oak woodland is another sensitive habitat community located in Dublin. Most of the oak woodland that can be found in Dublin is concentrated in the Western Extended Planning Area. In addition to California live oaks, other species such as bay, laurel and California buckeye are a vital part of this plant community. The City emphasizes preservation of oak woodland in the Western Extended Planning Area. Development should be clustered in grassland areas wherever possible to protect existing trees. However, as part of comprehensive planning for development in this area, some oak Appendix C-57 ZJ - City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) woodland may need to be removed. Removal of oaks is allowed only after all feasible site planning efforts have been made to preserve trees. Heritage Tree Preservation Heritage trees, defined as any oak, bay, cypress, maple, redwood, buckeye, and sycamore tree having a trunk or main stem of 24 inches or more in diameter or any other tree required to be preserved as part of a discretionary entitlement, are protected by City ordinance. Removal of heritage trees requires a permit upon finding that the tree presents a public safety risk, removal is necessary for reasonable development of property, does not increase erosion or stream water flow potential, or would not otherwise affect neighborhood aesthetics. Seismic Hazards The Calaveras Fault is the major active fault in the planning area with rupture potential and runs parallel to and just west of San Ramon Road. The Pleasanton Fault, located near the west edge of Camp Parks, is difficult to locate precisely. The State has established Alquist-Priolo Special Studies Zones along both faults, requiring detailed studies of rupture hazards prior to construction. Few potential building sites within the City of Dublin or the extended planning area are without geologic impact or hazard. The hazard may be actual, such as an active landslide or proximity to an active fault, or potential, such as a proposed cut that might activate a landslide. Mitigation of hazards may increase construction cost, but will reduce long-term costs to both property owners and the City. Fire Hazards Steep, inaccessible slopes and brush create a high fire hazard in the western hills. New development projects that are located outside a fire station service area and/or interface with open space are required to incorporate certain fire protection measures. For example, sprinklers are required for all habitable structures beyond five minutes response time from a station. A fire protection buffer zone may also be required around the perimeter of residential development situated adjacent to undeveloped open space land. Furthermore, the City enforces its Fire Safe Roof and Spark Arrestor ordinances for development proposed near high fire hazard areas. These measures may increase the cost of new housing in vulnerable areas; however, the added protection is necessary to ensure public health, safety, and welfare. Appendix C-58 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) 3. Housing Resources This section evaluates the resources available in Dublin for the development and preservation of housing. A. Regional Housing Needs Assessment (RHNA) State law (California Government Code Section 65584) provides for councils of governments to prepare regional housing allocation plans that assign a share of a region's housing construction need to each city and county. In the nine-county San Francisco Bay Area, the Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG) is the council of governments authorized under State law to identify existing and future housing needs for the region. ABAG prepared a new regional housing allocation plan in 2007. This "Regional Housing Needs Assessment" (RHNA) covers the period from January 1, 2007 through June 30, 2014. Existing need is evaluated based on overpayment (30 percent or more of income), overcrowding by lower income households, and the need to raise vacancy rates in the jurisdiction to a level at which the market would operate freely. The housing assessment also includes an impaction correction to reduce the further concentration of lower income households in jurisdictions that already have more than the regional average of such households. ABAG's methodology is based on the regional growth estimates developed by the State Department of Housing and Community Development (HCD). These are "planning goals" and are not meant to match, and often exceed, anticipated housing production. The planning goals developed by HCD are provided to ABAG in the form of regional housing goals, divided into income categories. ABAG is responsible for allocating the RHNA goals to cities and counties in the Bay Area. The RHNA is a minimum needs number —jurisdictions are free to plan for, and accommodate, a larger number of dwelling units than the allocation. The jurisdiction must, however, identify adequate sites at appropriate zoning and development standards to accommodate its RHNA. While the jurisdiction must also show how it will facilitate and encourage the development of these units, it is not obligated to build any of the units itself or finance their construction. According to the RHNA, the City of Dublin has a total housing construction need of 3,330 units. Table C-30 shows Dublin's 2007-2014 planning period allocation. The City must accommodate these units either through production of units or provision of adequate sites that can accommodate these units. Specifically, for facilitating the development of lower income units, the State has established a default density of 30 units per acre. 40 Appendix C-59 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Table C-30: Regional Housing Needs Assessment (2007-2074) Income Level Dwelling Units % of Total Extremely Low/Very Low-Income' 1,092 32.8% Low-Income 661 19.8% Moderate-Income 653 19.6% Above-Moderate-Income 924 27.7% Total 3,330 100.0% Source:ABAG Regional Housing Needs Assessment Note 1: AB 2634 amending the Housing Element law requires local jurisdictions project its future housing needs for extremely low income households (0-30 percent AMI). Specifically, State law provides two methodologies for estimating the extremely low income needs — either by splitting the very low income category evenly between extremely low (0-30 percent AMI) and very low (31-50 percent AMI) incomes; or to apportion the very low income category based on Census data. According to Table C-20, the City of Dublin had 909 very low households (321 extremely low and 588 very low income households) in 2000. Based on this proportion, the 1,092 very low income RHNA units can be split into 35.3 percent(386)extremely low and 64.7 percent very low(523)very low income units. s B. Credits against the RHNA As the RHNA is for the planning period of January 1, 2007 through June 30, 2014, housing units constructed,permitted, or approved as of January 1, 2007 can be credited toward the RHNA. Units Finaled Since January 1, 2007, 1,544 units have been finaled in the City. These include projects totaling 442 affordable units for very low, low, and moderate income households (see Table C-31). All affordable units are deed-restricted for long-term affordability pursuant to development agreements and affordable housing agreements. Units Approved but Not Yet Constructed In addition, the City has 4,105 units that have received planning approval from the Planning Commission and/or City Council. A total of 234 affordable units will be provided as a result of the City's inclusionary zoning requirements (see Table C-32). 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L N CL ED CL O oo rn 'C N N N p 0 cz 05 Ma N cco En r w Cr OF City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Remaining RHNA Based on units produced or approved, the City has already met a substantial portion of its RHNA obligations. Specifically, the City has met its requirement for the above moderate income RHNA, with a remaining RHNA of 1,730 lower and moderate income units (see Table C-33). Table C-33: Remaining RHNA Extremely/ Low Moderate Above Total Very Low Moderate RHNA 1,092 661 653 924 3,330 Units Finaled 169 110 163 1,102 1,544 Units Approved, 44 32 158 3,935 4,105 not Constructed Remaining 879 519 332 0 1,730 RHNA C. Future Development Potential Residential Development Potential Vacant and underutilized properties in the City can accommodate a maximum of 4,879 units based on maximum permitted densities (Table C-35). However, based on average densities (and mid-point densities in the Eastern Dublin Specific Plan), the more realistic estimate of development potential is 3,755 units. Based on past projects (see Table C-34), average density achieved in Medium High Density Residential sites is 23 units per acre. For High Density Residential properties, transit-oriented development projects yielded an average density of 75 units per acre and other high-density projects yielded an average density of 52 units per acre. Minimum density at High Density Residential zone is 25.1 units per acre, and minimum density at the Medium High Residential zone is 14.1 units per acre. Location, site characteristics, discussions with property owners/developers, past project examples, and underlying land use plans are used to determine a conservative estimate on the potential density for each property. Most of the properties identified with potential for near-term development(within the next five years) are either completely vacant or improved with marginal structures or uses. Some properties have demonstrated development interests: 1)property owners or developers are in discussions with the City; 2) conceptual development proposals have been developed; or 3) owners/developers are processing applications for development. However, due to the current market conditions, many development projects are on hold or have slowed down. Z Appendix C-65 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Table C-34: Average Development Densities Project Land Use Acres Units (units/acre) t Willows Medium High 2.94 56 19 Tralee Village:Townhomes Medium High 5.89 103 17 Tralee Village:Mixed Use Medium High 4.72 130 28 Dublin Ranch Villages: Cottages Medium High 8.98 200 22 Dublin Ranch Villages: Courtyards Medium High 11.60 281 24 JPI/Jefferson(Hacienda/Central) Medium High 16.17 368 23 Archstone Hacienda Medium High 11.95 324 27 Archstone Iron Horse Medium High 7.39 177 24 Average Density 23 Camellia Place High 2.00 112 56 Avalon @ Dublin Station High 3.57 305 85 Elan @ Dublin Station High 3.13 257 82 Average Density-TOD 75 The Groves @ Dublin Ranch High 19.68 930 47 Dublin Ranch Villages: Villas High 10.00 289 29 Dublin Ranch Villages: Terraces High 10.10 626 62 Waterford High 5.60 390 70 Average Density 52 Appendix C-66 won n c cd cd as cd ca Id � C c> cd U b p 0 0 U U c> c> on 0 U Q N W bA cC cd Lt S." ,�,+ N � O cd cO bq cd C3 O cC UfYi x , , Q , > O p� V� O O O O O O O O O O O O --i O O O O O O O O O O — .--i — .--i .-y — .--i — — .-y CD U C y O C O O O C O O .O O C � H 0 � > bA Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q a a N y . � ^" U •--i 06 O� 01 N 00 N "aid r" far O O O O O O O O O O O 'Z 00 N N l� r- kn �7 ' 1 ' O N O O O M N O N 0 O 0 O t- C) O O O O v'� v� N O O O O O N O O O O O O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cl O o 0 0 0 h M V1 W) -� t kn �O ^� �O N 'n � ail V1 �O �O vl .� 1,6 VA 0o O O O O oo O oo O d 00 O O O O O 00 00 00 00 O 00 O O 00 00 CO O" O O� O 01 O� a1 O O� O� O ON Ol V W✓ X_ a a to a~° w z ¢ QQQQQQQQQQ 00 d b CL a a o �o gn 00 M M Oti O ON � O o a YS •°'� ,� N 00 O �O kn O 00 v'� 00 a+ 3 N kn M CD C U ...' 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As previously stated, projects in Medium-High Density Residential category achieved an average density of 23 units per acre, compared to the maximum allowable density of 25 units per acre. Based on the feasibility demonstrated by past projects, affordable housing for lower income households can be achieved in the Medium-High Density Residential category. Affordable housing projects in this density include: • Anderson: This 108-unit project includes 88 affordable units (18 very low, 26 low, and 44 moderate income rental units). Project was developed at a density of 15.4 du/ac. • Willows: This is a 56-unit for-sale project that includes 6 affordable units (1 very low, 1 low, and 4 moderate income for-sale units). Project was developed at a density of 19 du/ac. • Tralee Village: This 233-unit for-sale project includes 29 affordable units (9 very low, 6 low, and 14 moderate income for-sale units). Project was developed at 22 du/ac. • Park Sierra: This affordable housing project has 57 very low income rental units. Project was developed at 19.4 du/ac. These projects were all achieved in the Medium-High Density Residential at a density of below 22 units per acre). As part of this Housing Element update, the City contacted EAH, developer of the Camellia Place at the Dublin Transit Center. Representative of EAH commented that affordable housing can be achieved in Dublin at a density of around 22 units per acre. At this density, it is feasible to develop two-three story walkup apartments at a reasonable level of subsidies. For a conservative assumption, sites in the Medium-High Density Residential category are used to fulfill the City's remaining RHNA for low and moderate income units. Overall, 921 units can be accommodated on sites designated for Medium-High Density Residential uses. For the City remaining RHNA for very low income units, sites in the High Density Residential category is used. As no maximum density is established for the High Density Residential designation, average densities based on past projects are used in estimating capacity. Average development densities achieved in this designation ranged between 52 and 75 units per acre, above the State default density of 30 units per acre for lower income housing. Overall, 993 units can be accommodated on sites designated for High Density Residential uses. The City's remaining residential sites can potentially accommodate up to 3,755 units, including sites for 993 very low income units, 921 low and moderate income units, and 1,841 above moderate income units (see Table C-36). Combined with the units approved and under construction (see Table C-31) and approved but not yet under construction (see Table C-32), the City can accommodate the remaining RHNA for all income levels. Appendix C-71 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) Table C-36: Summary of Sites Inventory Potential Maximum Potential General Plan Density Acres Units Units Income/Affordability Level Low Density 3.0 180.2 1,081 540 Above Moderate Income Medium Density 10.0 122.5 1,716 1,225 Above Moderate Income Mixed Use 11.9 6.4 96 76 Above Moderate Income Mixed Use Downtown Core 1 14.5 6.9 100 100 Low and Moderate Income Medium-High 23.0 35.7 893 821 Low and Moderate Income High 52.0 3.2 166 166 Very Low Income High(TOD) 75.0 11.02 827 827 Very Low Income Total 365.9 4,879 3,755 Note 1: The Downtown Core provides a maximum density of 25.1+ du/ac, equivalent to High Density Residential. However,based on a pervious development concept for the site,this sites inventory conservatively assumes 100 units on the site. Table C-37: RHNA and Sites Capacity Extremely/ Low Moderate Above Total Very Low Moderate RHNA 1,092 661 653 924 3,330 Units Finaled 169 110 163 1,102 1,544 Units Approved, 44 32 158 3,935 4,105 not Constructed Remaining RHNA 879 519 1 332 0 1,730 Sites Capacity 993 921 1,841 3,755 Surplus/(Shortfall) +114 +70 +5,954 +6,138 Infrastructure Capacity According to the Dublin San Ramon Services District Water Master Plan (September 2000), the Dublin San Ramon Services District (DSRSD) currently serves a population of approximately 28,000 in the Central Dublin, Eastern Dublin, and Camp Parks area. The District's service area will encompass almost 28 square miles and is projected to include build out of the existing service areas plus the Western Dublin and Dougherty Valley planning areas. Build out is estimated at 82,400 residents and 26,200 dwelling units. There are 16,029 existing units as of January 2008, approximately 10,000 units below the buildout capacity for water services. While the City has a R14NA of 3,330 units, more than 1,500 units have already been constructed and accounted for under the existing housing stock. Therefore, projected water services capacity is adequate to accommodate the City's remaining RUNA. The Dublin San Ramon Service District also provides wastewater collection and treatment services to the City of Dublin in Alameda County and portions of the City of San Ramon in Contra Costa County. The District's wastewater service area is smaller than the water service area (wastewater service to the northern portion of San Ramon and to the Dougherty Valley is provided by the Central Contra Costa Sanitary District). The DSRSD wastewater collection system includes over 107 miles of sanitary sewers from 6 to 42 inches in diameter. The ages of the sewers range from less than 5 to over 40 years old. The DSRSD Wastewater Collection System Master Plan Update (February 2000) states that there are eight improvement projects recommend providing the required capacity in the Appendix C-72 City of Dublin ZZ Housing Element(2009-2014) District's wastewater collection system. All necessary capital improvements were completed by 2003 to serve future growth. D. Financial Resources Inclusionary Zoning In-Lieu Fee As a small city, the City of Dublin has very limited access to financial resources for affordable housing. The significant resource for the City is the Inclusionary Zoning In-Lieu Fee. The City adopted an Inclusionary Zoning Ordinance in 2002 to assure that housing development contributes to the attainment of the City's housing goals by increasing the production of residential units affordable by households of very low, low, and moderate incomes. Upon request, the City Council can allow the applicant to pay a fee in-lieu of constructing up to 40 percent of the affordable units that the developer would otherwise be required to construct. In-lieu fees are placed into an Inclusionary Zoning In-Lieu Fee Fund. The In-Lieu Fee is primarily used to support the construction of affordable housing units. The City also approved a Commercial Linkage Fee on May 3, 2005. Fees are charged to non- residential developments, based on the square footage and type of commercial building space and placed into an Inclusionary Zoning In-Lieu Fee Fund. A total of$344,400 has been collected as of August 2008. The funds are to be used for the following activities: • Affordable housing construction loans; • First Time Homebuyer Loan Program; • Homeownership training and foreclosure prevention services; • Rental assistance programs; • Housing Division's administrative costs; and • Alameda County Homeless Management Information System. Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) CDBG is the largest federal housing-related program for affordable housing. It is a "pass-through" program that allows local governments to use federal funds to alleviate poverty and blight. Cities with populations of over 50,000 receive CDBG funds directly from HUD, while smaller cities usually use county-administered CDBG funds. HUD makes allocations based on a formula that takes population, poverty, and housing distress into account. CDBG funds are used for a variety of housing efforts including activities aimed at reducing costs for private development (helping fund site acquisition, improvement, and other soft costs); housing acquisition and rehabilitation through short and long- term loans, grants or loan guarantees; direct payment of rent or mortgage and housing counseling services; and fair housing activities. CDBG funds are best used in combination with other subsidy sources or to provide pre-development funding to initiate housing development. As a small city, the City of Dublin does not qualify to receive CDBG funds directly from HUD. However, it participates in the County of Alameda CDBG program. The County offers the Home Improvement Program for Dublin residents using CDBG funds. Appendix C-73 City of Dublin Housing Element(2009-2014) E. Administrative Resources The Bay Area is fortunate to have a large number of successful non-profit and for-profit housing developers who have produced thousands of high-quality, well-managed affordable housing projects for lower and moderate income households. Collectively, they have produced multi-family developments, single-family developments, rental and ownership opportunities, sweat-equity developments, mixed income projects, mixed use developments, and housing that is specifically designed to meet the needs of seniors, disabled persons, farm workers, female-headed households, people with substance abuse problems, and/or homeless persons. Active affordable housing developers in the region include Resources for Community Development, Satellite Housing, East Bay Habitat for Humanity, Eden Housing, East Bay Housing Organizations, ECHO Housing, and BRIDGE Housing Corporation, among others. The City of Dublin achieves affordable housing primarily through its Inclusionary Zoning Ordinance. It is also currently working with the Housing Authority of the County of Alameda and Eden Housing to pursue the redevelopment of the Arroyo Vista site for 378 affordable and market-rate housing units. Appendix C-74